Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that can be found in two kinds. The primary type is called phylloquinone, found in green leafy veggies like collard greens, kale, and spinach. The other type, menaquinones, are discovered in some animal foods and fermented foods. Menaquinones can likewise be produced by bacteria in the body.

Vitamin K helps to make different proteins that are needed for blood clot and the structure of bones. Prothrombin is a vitamin K-dependent protein straight included with blood clot. Osteocalcin is another protein that needs vitamin K to produce healthy bone tissue.

Vitamin K is discovered throughout the body consisting of the liver, brain, heart, pancreas, and bone. It is broken down very quickly and excreted in urine or stool. Because of this, it rarely reaches poisonous levels in the body even with high intakes, as may sometimes accompany other fat-soluble vitamins. [1]

Table of Contents

Why do individuals take vitamin K?

Low levels of vitamin K can raise the danger of unchecked bleeding. While vitamin K shortages are uncommon in adults, they are extremely common in newborn infants. A single injection of vitamin K for newborns is basic. Vitamin K is also used to counteract an overdose of the blood thinner Coumadin.

While vitamin K deficiencies are unusual, you may be at higher danger if you:.

Have a disease that affects absorption in the digestion tract, such as Crohn’s disease or active celiac illness.

  • Take drugs that disrupt vitamin K absorption
  • Are severely malnourished
  • Consume alcohol heavily
  • In these cases, a healthcare company might recommend vitamin K supplements.

Uses of vitamin K for cancer, for the symptoms of early morning sickness, for the elimination of spider veins, and for other conditions are unverified. Find out more about vitamins k2 and d3 in addition to which foods load the greatest amount. [2]

Introduction

Vitamin K can be found in a variety of various types, called vitamers. Kinds of vitamin K are either phylloquinones (vitamin K1) or menaquinones (vitamin K2). There are different vitamers within the vitamin K2 class, abbreviated as MK-x.

The minimum reliable dose for phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is 50mcg, which is enough to satisfy the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) for vitamin K. The maximum dose for vitamin K1 is 1,000 mcg.

The minimum reliable dose for brief chain menaquinones (MK-4) is 1,500 mcg. Dosages of up to 45mg (45,000 mcg) have been safely used in a superloading dosing procedure.

The minimum effective dosage for longer chain menaquinones (MK-7, MK-8, and MK-9) is between 90-360mcg. More research is required to identify the maximum efficient dosage for MK-7.

A topical application of vitamin K must consist of at least 5% phylloquinone.

Vitamin K should be supplemented alongside fats, even if the vitamin is originating from a plant-based source, so think about taking vitamin K at meal time. Microwaving plant-based sources of vitamin K will increase the absorption rate of the vitamin. [3]

Which foods include vitamin K?

Vitamin K is a group of substances divided into two groups– K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone).

Vitamin K1, the most common form, is primarily found in plant foods, specifically dark leafy greens. K2, on the other hand, is only discovered in animal foods and fermented plant foods, such as natto.

The following 20 foods are excellent sources of vitamin K.

1. Kale (cooked)– 443% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 531 mcg (443% of the DV).

100 grams: 817 mcg (681% of the DV).

2. Mustard greens (cooked)– 346% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 415 mcg (346% of the DV).

100 grams: 593 mcg (494% of the DV).

3. Swiss chard (raw)– 332% of the DV per serving

1 leaf: 398 mcg (332% of the DV).

100 grams: 830 mcg (692% of the DV).

4. Collard greens (prepared)– 322% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 386 mcg (322% of the DV).

100 grams: 407 mcg (339% of the DV).

5. Natto– 261% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 313 mcg (261% of the DV).

100 grams: 1,103 mcg (920% of the DV).

6. Spinach (raw)– 121% of the DV per serving

1 cup: 145 mcg (121% of the DV).

100 grams: 483 mcg (402% of the DV).

7. Broccoli (cooked)– 92% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 110 mcg (92% of the DV).

100 grams: 141 mcg (118% of the DV).

8. Brussels sprouts (cooked)– 91% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 109 mcg (91% of the DV).

100 grams: 140 mcg (117% of the DV).

9. Beef liver– 60% of the DV per serving

1 slice: 72 mcg (60% of the DV).

100 grams: 106 mcg (88% of the DV).

10. Pork chops– 49% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 59 mcg (49% of the DV).

100 grams: 69 mcg (57% of the DV).

11. Chicken– 43% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 51 mcg (43% of the DV).

100 grams: 60 mcg (50% of the DV).

12. Goose liver paste– 40% of the DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 48 mcg (40% of the DV).

100 grams: 369 mcg (308% of the DV).

13. Green beans (cooked)– 25% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 30 mcg (25% of the DV).

100 grams: 48 mcg (40% of the DV).

14. Prunes– 24% of the DV per serving

5 pieces: 28 mcg (24% of the DV).

100 grams: 60 mcg (50% of the DV).

15. Kiwi– 23% of the DV per serving

1 fruit: 28 mcg (23% of the DV).

100 grams: 40 mcg (34% of the DV).

16. Soybean oil– 21% of the DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 25 mcg (21% of the DV).

100 grams: 184 mcg (153% of the DV).

17. Hard cheeses– 20% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 25 mcg (20% of the DV).

100 grams: 87 mcg (72% of the DV).

18. Avocado– 18% of the DV per serving

Half of a fruit, medium: 21 mcg (18% of the DV).

100 grams: 21 mcg (18% of the DV).

19. Green peas (prepared)– 17% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 21 mcg (17% of the DV).

100 grams: 26 mcg (22% of the DV).

20. Soft cheeses– 14% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 17 mcg (14% of the DV).

100 grams: 59 mcg (49% of the DV).

3 more veggies high in vitamin K

The best sources of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) are dark, leafy green vegetables. In fact, the prefix “phyllo” in this vitamin’s name refers to leaves.

1. Beet greens (prepared)– 290% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 349 mcg (290% of the DV).

100 grams: 484 mcg (403% of the DV).

2. Parsley (fresh)– 137% of the DV per serving

1 sprig: 164 mcg (137% of the DV).

100 grams: 1,640 mcg (1,367% of the DV).

3. Cabbage (prepared)– 68% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 82 mcg (68% of the DV).

100 grams: 109 mcg (91% of the DV).

6 more meat products high in vitamin K

Fatty meats and liver are exceptional sources of vitamin K2, though the content differs by the animal’s diet plan and may vary in between areas or producers. Remember that research study on the vitamin K2 content of animal foods is incomplete.

1. Bacon– 25% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 30 mcg (25% of the DV).

100 grams: 35 mcg (29% of the DV).

2. Ground beef– 7% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 8 mcg (7% of the DV).

100 grams: 9.4 mcg (8% of the DV).

3. Pork liver– 6% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 6.6 mcg (6% of the DV).

100 grams: 7.8 mcg (7% of the DV).

4. Duck breast– 4% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 4.7 mcg (4% of the DV).

100 grams: 5.5 mcg (5% of the DV).

5. Beef kidneys– 4% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 4.9 mcg (4% of the DV).

100 grams: 5.7 mcg (5% of the DV).

6. Chicken liver– 3% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 3.6 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 13 mcg (11% of the DV).

9 more dairy foods and eggs high in vitamin K

Dairy foods and eggs are good sources of vitamin K2.

Like meat, their vitamin content depends upon the animal’s diet plan, and specific worths might differ by area or producer.

1. Jarlsberg cheese– 19% of the DV per serving

1 piece: 22 mcg (19% of the DV).

100 grams: 80 mcg (66% of the DV).

2. Soft cheeses– 14% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 17 mcg (14% of the DV).

100 grams: 59 mcg (49% of the DV).

3. Edam cheese– 11% of the DV per serving

1 piece: 13 mcg (11% of the DV).

100 grams: 49 mcg (41% of the DV).

4. Blue cheese– 9% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 10 mcg (9% of the DV).

100 grams: 36 mcg (30% of the DV).

5. Egg yolk– 5% of the DV per serving

1 large: 5.8 mcg (5% of the DV).

100 grams: 34 mcg (29% of the DV).

6. Cheddar– 3% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 3.7 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 13 mcg (11% of the DV).

7. Whole milk– 3% of the DV per serving

1 cup: 3.2 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 1.3 mcg (1% of the DV).

8. Butter– 2% of the DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 3 mcg (2% of the DV).

100 grams: 21 mcg (18% of the DV).

9. Cream– 2% of the DV per serving

2 tablespoons: 2.7 mcg (2% of the DV).

100 grams: 9 mcg (8% of the DV).

7 more fruits high in vitamin K

Fruits normally do not include as much vitamin K1 as leafy green vegetables, however a couple of supply good amounts.

1. Blackberries– 12% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

100 grams: 20 mcg (17% of the DV).

2. Blueberries– 12% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

100 grams: 19 mcg (16% of the DV).

3. Pomegranate– 12% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

100 grams: 16 mcg (14% of the DV).

4. Figs (dried)– 6% of the DV per serving

5 pieces: 6.6 mcg (6% of the DV).

100 grams: 16 mcg (13% of the DV).

5. Tomatoes (sun-dried)– 4% of the DV per serving

5 pieces: 4.3 mcg (4% of the DV).

100 grams: 43 mcg (36% of the DV).

6. Grapes– 3% of the DV per serving

10 grapes: 3.5 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 15 mcg (12% of the DV).

7. Red currants– 3% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 3.1 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 11 mcg (9% of the DV).

8 more nuts and vegetables high in vitamin K

Some legumes and nuts provide good quantities of vitamin K1 however typically much less than leafy greens.

1. Soybeans (prepared)– 13% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 16 mcg (13% of the DV).

100 grams: 33 mcg (28% of the DV).

2. Grown mung beans (cooked)– 12% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

100 grams: 23 mcg (19% of the DV).

3. Cashews– 8% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 9.7 mcg (8% of the DV).

100 grams: 34 mcg (28% of the DV).

4. Red kidney beans (cooked)– 6% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 7.4 mcg (6% of the DV).

100 grams: 8.4 mcg (7% of the DV).

5. Hazelnuts– 3% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 4 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

6. Pine nuts– 1% of the DV per serving

10 nuts: 0.9 mcg (1% of the DV).

100 grams: 54 mcg (45% of the DV).

7. Pecans– 1% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 1 mcg (1% of the DV).

100 grams: 3.5 mcg (3% of the DV).

8. Walnuts– 1% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 0.8 mcg (1% of the DV).

100 grams: 2.7 mcg (2% of the DV) [4]

Chemistry

Vitamin K and its derivatives contain a 2-methyl-1,4- naphthoquinone nucleus with a lipophilic side chain (figure 1). The structure is similar to warfarin and other coumarin-like anticoagulants, which work as vitamin K antagonists. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) has a phytyl side chain. Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) has a number of forms, each with an isoprenoid side chain, designated MK-4 (or menatetrenone) through MK-13 according to the length of the side chain. The most typical form of menaquinone has four residues (MK-4).

Metabolic process

Vitamin K absorption requires undamaged pancreatic and biliary function and fat absorptive systems. Dietary vitamin K is protein-bound and is liberated by the proteolytic action of pancreatic enzymes in the small intestine. Bile salts then solubilize vitamin K into blended micelles for absorption into enterocytes, where it is incorporated into chylomicrons, thereby assisting in absorption into the digestive lymphatics and portal circulation for transport to the liver. In the liver it is repackaged into extremely low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). It circulates in small quantities bound to lipoprotein.

Vitamin K: 5 scientifically shown benefits

Promotes blood clot

You probably think about blood cells or platelets when clotting is talked about, however vitamin K is actually essential to this process that keeps you from extreme bleeding at even the tiniest of injuries.

K plays a crucial function in the development of pro-blood clotting proteins known as factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X, and anticoagulant (anti-blood clotting) proteins known as proteins C, S, and Z.

But although this process is very important, some people thicken too easily. Some blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin (trademark name Coumadin), work by annoying the action of vitamin K.

Because of this, it is very essential that people on warfarin keep their vitamin K levels constant. That indicates watching their vitamin K intake throughout the time they’re taking warfarin and getting regular blood checks done.

Avoid osteoporosis and assistance strong bones

However wait, isn’t that calcium and vitamin D? That’s the Destiny’s Child circumstance at play. There are in fact vitamin K-dependent proteins needed for appropriate bone health.

This fat-soluble vitamin has to exist for an enzyme called gamma-glutamyl carboxylase to make the protein osteocalcin work, through a procedure called carboxylation, which is needed for bone growth (Beulens, 2013).

Regardless of its critical function in managing bone metabolic process, it’s unclear whether vitamin K can lower the danger of bone fractures. Past research study has recommended that getting enough vitamin K can assist avoid bone loss and decrease hip fractures in older males and females (Hamidi, 2013).

Bone health

And research study done specifically on postmenopausal females with osteoporosis has shown possible gain from K2 supplementation. But a meta-analysis found that vitamin K may help with bone mineral density in some physical places, however not others (Fang, 2011; Iwamoto, 2014).

More work requirements to be done to clarify the relationship and see if supplementing with the Ks could assist prevent fractures, particularly those at the hip.

Might enhance memory in older adults

Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDP) that require the intake of vitamin K to function correctly do not just affect your bone modeling, however.

The VKDPs not connected with bone growth or blood clot are included with the metabolism of sphingolipids, a class of lipids frequently found in brain cell membranes that are included with cellular events.

Changes in sphingolipid metabolic process have been linked with not just age-related cognitive decrease however also neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s (Ferland, 2012).

Current research recommends that vitamin K villains, which are used as anticoagulants, might have an unfavorable result on visual memory, spoken fluency, and brain volume. However it doesn’t appear to go in just one instructions (Alisi, 2019).

Greater vitamin K levels, specifically phylloquinone (K1), are related to better verbal episodic memory, though no distinction was observed with non-verbal episodic memory (Presse, 2013).

Keep blood pressure down

Getting an appropriate intake of vitamin K may likewise be vital to your heart health due to the fact that it may have the ability to help avoid hypertension (unusually hypertension) and lower your risk of cardiovascular disease (more on that in a second).

Low vitamin D and K status have been linked to hypertension with boosts in both systolic and diastolic high blood pressure. Like D, vitamin K engages carefully with calcium in your body, in this case, helping to regulate the levels of this mineral in your blood (Ballegooijen, 2017).

Vascular calcification– a procedure in which minerals like calcium are deposited in capillary, blocking blood flow in time– is common as we age. However getting the proper amount of vitamin K may help prevent mineralization, staving off this procedure and keeping blood pressure lower.

Lower risk of cardiovascular disease

Your danger of a cardiovascular event is closely associated with the calcification of your capillary.

In fact, one meta-analysis that looked at 30 research studies found a 300– 400 percent increase in your threat of cardiovascular events with the existence of calcification on any arterial wall (Rennenberg, 2009).

But greater blood levels of the K1 type of vitamin K are connected with a lower danger of heart disease. [6]

What is Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding?

Vitamin K deficiency bleeding or VKDB, takes place when babies can not stop bleeding since their blood does not have sufficient Vitamin K to form an embolism. The bleeding can happen anywhere on the inside or outside of the body. When the bleeding happens inside the body, it can be tough to notice. Frequently, an infant with VKDB will bleed into his/her intestinal tracts, or into the brain, which can lead to mental retardation and even death. Infants who do not receive the vitamin K shot at birth can develop VKDB at any time as much as 6 months of age. There are 3 kinds of VKDB, based on the age of the infant when the bleeding issues begin: early, classical and late. More information about these types is included listed below.

Why are infants more likely to have vitamin K shortage and to get VKDB?

All infants, no matter sex, race, or ethnic background, are at greater threat for VKDB till they start consuming routine foods, usually at age 4-6 months, and till the regular digestive germs start making vitamin K. This is due to the fact that:

At birth, babies have extremely little vitamin K saved in their bodies due to the fact that just small amounts pass to them through the placenta from their mothers.

The great bacteria that produce vitamin K are not yet present in the newborn’s intestines.

Breast milk contains low quantities of vitamin K, so solely breastfed children do not get enough vitamin K from the breast milk, alone.

What can I do to prevent my infant from getting vitamin K shortage and VKDB?

The good news is that VKDB is quickly prevented by giving children a vitamin K shot into a muscle in the thigh. One shot provided just after birth will safeguard your baby from VKDB. In order to provide for immediate bonding and contact in between the newborn and mother, providing the vitamin K shot can be postponed approximately 6 hours after birth.

Is the Vitamin K shot safe?

Yes. Numerous research studies have shown that vitamin K is safe when offered to newborns. For more information about the safety of the vitamin K shot, please see our frequently asked question’s.

What might trigger babies to be deficient in vitamin K and have bleeding issues?

Some things can put infants at a higher threat for developing VKDB. Children at greater threat consist of:

  1. Babies who do not receive a vitamin K chance at birth. The threat is even greater if they are solely breastfed.
  2. Children whose moms used specific medications, like isoniazid or medications to deal with seizures. These drugs disrupt how the body uses vitamin K.
  3. Children who have liver disease; typically they can not utilize the vitamin K their body shops.
  4. Children who have diarrhea, celiac illness, or cystic fibrosis often have trouble absorbing vitamins, consisting of vitamin K, from the foods they eat.

How often are infants affected with vitamin K shortage bleeding?

Since children can be impacted until they are 6 months old, healthcare providers divide VKDB into 3 types; early, classical and late. The chart listed below helps discuss these 3 different types.

Early and classical VKDB are more typical, occurring in 1 in 60 to 1 in 250 newborns, although the danger is much higher for early VKDB amongst those babies whose moms utilized certain medications throughout the pregnancy.

Late VKDB is rarer, happening in 1 in 14,000 to 1 in 25,000 babies (1– 3).

Infants who do not get a vitamin K chance at birth are 81 times more likely to establish late VKDB than infants who do get a vitamin K chance at birth. [7]

Causes of Vitamin K Shortage

Vitamin K deficiency can arise from the following:

  • Lack of vitamin K in the diet plan
  • A very low fat diet since vitamin K is finest soaked up when consumed with some fat
  • Conditions that hinder fat absorption and that therefore minimize the absorption of vitamin K (such as blockage of the bile ducts or cystic fibrosis)
  • Particular drugs, including antiseizure drugs, and some prescription antibiotics
  • Intake of big quantities of mineral oil, which might reduce the absorption of vitamin K

Babies are prone to vitamin K deficiency because of the following:

  • Only percentages of vitamin K pass from the mom to the fetus during pregnancy.
  • During the very first couple of days after birth, the newborn’s intestinal tract has not yet obtained bacteria to produce vitamin K.

Symptoms of Vitamin K Shortage

The primary sign of vitamin K deficiency is bleeding (hemorrhage)– into the skin (causing contusions), from the nose, from a wound, in the stomach, or in the intestine. Often bleeding in the stomach triggers throwing up with blood. Blood may be seen in the urine or stool, or stools may be tarry black.

In babies, deadly bleeding within or around the brain may happen.

Having a liver disorder increases the threat of bleeding, due to the fact that clotting elements are made in the liver.

Vitamin K shortage might likewise damage bones.

Diagnosis of Vitamin K Shortage

Blood tests

Doctors presume vitamin K deficiency when abnormal bleeding takes place in people with conditions that put them at risk.

Blood tests to determine how rapidly embolism are done to assist verify the medical diagnosis. Understanding just how much vitamin K individuals take in helps doctors interpret results of these blood tests. Often the vitamin K level in the blood is determined.

Treatment of Vitamin K Deficiency

A vitamin K injection in the muscle is advised for all babies to minimize the danger of bleeding within the brain after delivery.

If vitamin K shortage is detected, vitamin K is normally taken by mouth or offered by injection under the skin. If a drug is the cause, the dose of the drug is changed or additional vitamin K is provided. [8]

Adverse effects

Together with its necessary results, a medication may trigger some undesirable results. Although not all of these side effects may take place, if they do occur they might need medical attention.

Contact your physician as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:.

Less typical

  • Decreased cravings
  • decreased movement or activity
  • problem in breathing
  • bigger liver
  • basic body swelling
  • irritability
  • muscle stiffness
  • paleness
  • yellow eyes or skin

Unusual

  • Trouble in swallowing
  • quickly or irregular breathing
  • lightheadedness or fainting
  • shortness of breath
  • skin rash, hives and/or itching
  • swelling of eyelids, face, or lips
  • tightness in chest
  • struggling breathing and/or wheezing

Uncommon

  • Blue color or flushing or redness of skin
  • lightheadedness
  • quickly and/or weak heartbeat
  • increased sweating
  • low high blood pressure (momentary)

Some negative effects might take place that typically do not require medical attention. These side effects may disappear throughout treatment as your body gets used to the medication. Likewise, your health care expert might be able to tell you about methods to prevent or minimize a few of these adverse effects. Contact your healthcare expert if any of the following negative effects continue or are annoying or if you have any concerns about them:.

  • Less common
  • Flushing of face
  • redness, pain, or swelling at location of injection
  • skin sores at place of injection (rare)
  • unusual taste

Opposite effects not listed might also take place in some clients. If you discover any other results, consult your healthcare specialist. [9]

Possible Interactions

If you are currently being treated with any of the following medications, you must not take vitamin K without very first talking to your health care company.

Prescription antibiotics– Antibiotics, especially those known as cephalosporins, reduce the absorption of vitamin K in the body. Using them for more than 10 days may reduce levels of vitamin K due to the fact that these drugs kill not just hazardous germs but likewise the bacteria that make vitamin K. People who already have low levels of vitamin K, such as those who are malnourished, senior, or taking warfarin (Coumadin) are at higher threat. Cephalosporins include:.

  • Cefamandole (Mandol)
  • Cefoperazone (Cefobid)
  • Cefmetazole (Zefazone)
  • Cefotetan (Cefotan)

Phenytoin (Dilantin)– Phenytoin interferes with the body’s ability to use vitamin K. Taking anticonvulsants (such as phenytoin) during pregnancy or while breastfeeding may reduce vitamin K in newborns.

Warfarin (Coumadin)– Vitamin K blocks the effects of the blood-thinning medication warfarin, so that it doesn’t work. You should not take vitamin K, or consume foods consisting of high amounts of vitamin K, while you are taking warfarin. Speak to your doctor for particular dietary standards.

Orlistat (Xenical, Alli) and Olestra– Orlistat, a medication used for weight reduction, and olestra, a substance contributed to some foods, reduces the amount of fat you body can take in. Due to the fact that vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin, these medications may likewise decrease levels of vitamin K. The Food and Drug Administration now requires that vitamin K and other fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E) be contributed to food products containing olestra. Medical professionals who prescribe orlistat generally suggest taking a multivitamin with these vitamins. If you must not be taking vitamin K, then you need to avoid foods which contain olestra.

Cholesterol-lowering medications– Bile acid sequestrants, utilized to minimize cholesterol, reduce how much fat your body absorbs and might also minimize absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. If you take one of these drugs, your doctor might suggest a vitamin K supplement:.

  • Cholestyramine (Questran)
  • Colestipol (Colestid)
  • Colsevelam (Welchol) [10]

Dangers

No tolerable upper limit has actually been determined for vitamin K. Toxicity is unusual and unlikely to arise from consuming foods including vitamin K.

Nevertheless, taking any type of supplement can lead to toxicity.

Vitamin K can engage with a number of typical medications, consisting of blood-thinners, anticonvulsants, prescription antibiotics, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and weight-loss drugs.

Blood thinners, such as warfarin are utilized to prevent hazardous embolism that might block blood circulation to the brain or heart. They work by decreasing or postponing vitamin K’s clotting capability. Suddenly increasing or reducing vitamin K consumption can interfere with the results of these drugs. Keeping vitamin K intake consistent from day to day can avoid these issues.

Anticonvulsants, if taken during pregnancy or while breastfeeding, can increase the danger of vitamin K deficiency in a fetus or a newborn. Examples of anticonvulsants are phenytoin and dilantin.

Cholesterol-lowering medications hinder fat absorption. Dietary fat is essential for soaking up vitamin K, so individuals who are taking this medication might have a greater danger of shortage.

Anybody who is taking any of these medications need to speak with their medical professional about their vitamin K intake.

The best way to ensure the body has enough nutrients is to take in a well balanced diet, with plenty of fruit and vegetables. Supplements should only be used in case of shortage, and after that, under medical guidance. [11]

Conclusion

Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and establish usually. Vitamin K assists your body by making proteins for healthy bones and tissues. It likewise makes proteins for blood clot. If you don’t have sufficient vitamin K, you might bleed too much.

Babies have very little vitamin K. They normally get a shot of vitamin K right after they are born.

If you take blood thinners, you need to be mindful about just how much vitamin K you get. You also need to be careful about taking vitamin E supplements. vitamin E can interfere with how vitamin K works in your body. Ask your healthcare service provider for suggestions about these vitamins.

There are various kinds of vitamin K. The majority of people get vitamin K from plants such as green vegetables, and dark berries. Germs in your intestines likewise produce small amounts of another type of vitamin K. [12]

References

  1. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/vitamin-k/
  2. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/supplement-guide-vitamin-k
  3. https://examine.com/supplements/vitamin-k/#how-to-take
  4. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/foods-high-in-vitamin-k
  5. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-vitamin-k
  6. https://ro.co/health-guide/vitamin-k-benefits/
  7. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/vitamink/facts.html
  8. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/disorders-of-nutrition/vitamins/vitamin-k-deficiency
  9. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/vitamin-k-class-oral-route-parenteral-route/side-effects/drg-20069592
  10. https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/supplement/vitamin-k
  11. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/219867#risks
  12. https://medlineplus.gov/vitamink.html
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