An aromatic plant whose greyish-green leaves are utilized as a culinary herb, belonging to southern europe and the mediterranean.

Other cooking herbs, like sage, rosemary and thyme, are native to mediterranean regions where the air is rather temperate and dry. [1]


Sage is an herb. There are many types of sage. The two most common are common sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia).

Sage may aid with chemical imbalances in the brain that trigger issues with memory and believing abilities. It may likewise change how the body utilizes insulin and sugar.

Individuals frequently use sage for memory and thinking skills, high cholesterol, and symptoms of menopause. It is also used for pain after surgery, lung cancer, sore throat, sunburn, and numerous other conditions, but there is no good clinical evidence to support these usages. [2]


Salvia officinalis has actually been utilized given that ancient times for warding off evil, snakebites, increasing ladies’s fertility, and more. The romans referred to sage as the “holy herb,” and used it in their spiritual rituals. Theophrastus wrote about 2 different sages, a wild undershrub he called sphakos, and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. Pliny the older stated the latter plant was called salvia by the romans, and utilized as a diuretic, an anesthetic for the skin, a styptic, and for other usages. Charlemagne recommended the plant for growing in the early middle ages, and throughout the carolingian empire, it was cultivated in monastery gardens. Walafrid strabo explained it in his poem hortulus as having a sweet aroma and working for numerous human disorders– he went back to the greek root for the name and called it lelifagus.

The plant had a high credibility throughout the middle ages, with lots of phrases describing its recovery residential or commercial properties and value. It was sometimes called s. Salvatrix (sage the savior). Dioscorides, pliny, and galen all advised sage as a diuretic, hemostatic, emmenagogue, and tonic. Le menagier de paris, in addition to advising cold sage soup and sage sauce for poultry, suggests infusion of sage for washing hands at table. John gerard’s herball (1597) specifies that sage “is singularly helpful for the head and brain, it quickeneth the senses and memory, strengtheneth the sinews, restoreth health to those that have the palsy, and taketh away shakey trembling of the members.” gervase markham’s the english huswife (1615) provides a dish for a tooth-powder of sage and salt. It appears in recipes for 4 thieves vinegar, a mix of herbs which was expected to ward off the plague. In past centuries, it was likewise used for hair care, insect bites and wasp stings, worried conditions, mental conditions, oral preparations for swelling of the mouth, tongue and throat, and likewise to lower fevers. [3]


Sage (salvia officinalis) is belonging to the mediterranean and naturalized throughout europe and the United States and Canada. Known as garden sage, meadow sage, and real sage, this pungent herb is a member of the lamiaceae, or mint, household. The genus name is taken from the latin salvare meaning “to save.” the specific name officinalis suggests that sage was consisted of on authorities lists of medical herbs. There are numerous species of sage, consisting of clary sage (s. Sclarea) called because of its standard use as an eyewash. Native americans used the roots and leaves of lyre-leafed sage (s. Lyrata l.), also referred to as cancerweed, as a salve for sores and in a tea to deal with colds and coughs. Another types, called magnificent sage (s. Divinorum), a local of oaxaca, mexico, has actually been used for centuries by regional shamans to accomplish modified states of awareness in recovery routines. There are a lot more garden varieties, including red or purple sage (s. Officinalis purpurascens), which is valued particularly for its medical purposes.

Sage prospers in full sun and well-drained soils, growing wild in some areas. It is a sturdy evergreen shrub with a deep taproot and an erect root stalk that produces woody, square, a little downy, branching stems that may reach a height of 4 feet (1.2 m). This familiar garden seasonal has long, light-green leaf stalks that bear easy opposite lance- or oval-shaped leaves. The strong and flexible leaves are veined, with a velvet-like somewhat crinkled texture and might grow to 2 in (5.1 cm) long in some ranges. Leaf margins look like a fine embroidery finish with rounded minutely toothed edges. They are a gray-green on the top and lighter on the underside. The entire plant is strongly fragrant, with a familiar pungency. Fresh leaves are bitter to the taste. Sage blooms in the middle of summer season with little white, blue, or purple flowers. [4]


Fundamental requirements sage is a grows finest in a well draining pipes, rich, clay loams with a ph between 6.5 and 7.0. It should be planted in full sun, although some afternoon shade is endured. Sage plants require warm temperature levels and adequate sunlight in order to produce a high vital oil material in the leaves. Proliferation sage is normally propagated from seed, although both cuttings, departments and air layering is likewise successfully practised. The planting site should be warm, dry and safeguarded from wind. Seeds must be sown after all risk of frost has actually passed leaving 23 cm (9 in) in between seeds. Fertilizer might be contributed to the soil prior to planting to aid development. Plants need to be thinned to a final spacing of 45 cm (18 in). General care and upkeep sage plants ought to be pruned in early spring to promote new development, or after flowering in the summer season. In addition to an application at planting, sage will gain from a side dressing of fertilizer 6 to 8 weeks after planting. Sage will end up being very woody within 3-4 years of planting and ought to be replaced with new plants. Harvesting sage is finest gathered just before flowering when the vital oil content of the leaves is greatest. Sage ought to be collected by cutting the top 20 cm (8 in) of tender growth with a sharp knife. Industrial fields may be gathered by cutting but the highest quality item is achieved by gathering only the leaves. [5]

Culinary sage types

The two primary kinds of sage that are grown for their cooking uses include ‘berggarten ‘, or conventional german sage, and the ever-popular ‘broadleaf ‘. While lots of people prefer to grow garden sage for cooking and its abundant taste, broadleaf sage has a milder taste, making it better for marinading or contributing to dishes and even cheese.

Garden sage is a durable perennial if you live in hardiness zones 5-8 in the united states. It’s likewise resistant to insects and diseases, so while you will need to eliminate little insects from the plant, it will not require much work from you to keep it healthy.

Typical sage

Likewise referred to as: cooking sage, garden sage.

Scientific name: salvia officinalis.

Common sage leaves

Typical sage is a popular herb that is grown for both medicinal and culinary usages. It’s an easy-to-grow perennial plant that can deal with most of the harsher environments in the northern united states, as well as in cooler areas.

It grows finest in raised beds with clayey soils completely sun to partial shade. Make certain it has total drainage. You should also look for good air circulation around this plant to help prevent bugs such as spider termites from ruining it or contaminating it with diseases.

Broadleaf sage

Likewise known as: cooking sage.

Broadleaf sage

Taxonomic name: salvia nemorosa ‘spicy world’ an excellent plant to contribute to your veggie garden if you like matching fresh herbs with meals. The leaves can be used in both mouthwatering meals or desserts. This variety of sage is also a good choice if there are kids (or family pets) in your house due to the fact that it has a milder taste than other kinds of sage. It also works well for pickling and seasoning oils, vinegars, butters and cheeses.

Golden sage

Scientific names: salvia officinalis ‘aurea’ and salvia officinialis ‘icterina’.

Golden sage

Golden sage has a less pungent flavor than common garden sage, and usually has a slight citrus taste.

Golden sage doesn’t fare extremely well in colder climates and tends to be more sensitive to modifications in light or temperature than other types of sage. These garden varieties tend to be more sensitive to other insects and diseases as well. However it is hardy to about 20 degrees fahrenheit but can grow back from the roots if exposed to colder temperature levels.

Russian sage

Scientific name: perovskia atriplicifolia.

Russian sage

Russian sage is a lovely and aromatic flowering plant, but it can also be grown for culinary purposes. Belonging to russia, main asia and turkey, this perennial herb is hardy in usda zones 4 through 9 with a choice for zones 5 through 8. It has long blooming durations that encounter fall or winter and often reseeds itself the following spring.

The colors of russian sage flowers and leaves are mostly shades of purple. As a perennial, they can grow up to 2 feet high with 2-inch long leaves growing in opposite pairs on the stem. The blooms are generally violet to pinkish or purple but may likewise be white.

Herbalists consider this plant slightly astringent and typically utilize it as a hair rinse for dry or brittle hair. It is also efficient in relieving swelling of your mucous membranes, such as those found in the throat or mouth and nasal passages.

An infusion of russian sage has been used to deal with colds, aching throats and coughs when contributed to drinks such as tea.

Italian sage

Likewise known as: italian aromatic sage.

Taxonomic name: salvia officinalis ‘italian’.

Italian sage

Italian sage has large violet flowers with grey leaves. This range of culinary sage isn’t commonly used for medical purposes, and it is a good option if you want to grow it for decorative reasons. It grows up to 2 feet high with opposite, ovate leaves that are about 1 inch in length.

Greek sage

Also referred to as: salvia cypria.

Taxonomic name: salvia fruticosa.

Greek sage

Typical usages: this kind of sage is native to the mediterranean area and is utilized primarily for decorative reasons. It grows up to 3 feet tall with slim stems and dark green leaves. Its blue-purple flowers are frequently used in arrangements and dried flower plans.

Greek sage is hardy in usda zones 5 through 9 and chooses to grow completely sun. It is a member of the mint household, so it can self-sow if given adequate water.

Greek sage accounts for 50-95% ( of the dried sage sold in north america, so to state it’s popular is an understatement.

Scarlet sage

Also called: scarlet salvia.

Scientific name: salvia splendens.

Scarlet sage

An unique variety of sage with dynamic red or purple flowers, this plant has a very aromatic aroma that can be used to make a variety of organic items. The growing suggestions are the most potent part of the plant, however you can also collect them for usage in sachets or other fragrant products. You can even dry and crush the leaves to develop your own potpourri.

Plants will reach around 2 feet tall and expanded into a dense bush with their timeless oval green leaves. Like numerous perennials, you ought to cut back on water throughout the winter season when temperature levels drop below freezing.

Pineapple sage

Likewise called: sweet sage.

Taxonomic name: salvia elegans.

Pineapple sage

This variety gets its name from the sweet odor it has when it blooms. Pineapple sage also grows well as an ornamental herb with little purple flowers and green leaves. You can utilize this variety to make both a tea and cast or harvest the leaves for later usage.

Common uses for this plant include assisting indigestion, decreasing discomfort connected with menstrual cramps, calming signs of anxiety and assisting you get a relaxing night’s sleep.

Pineapple sage is hardy in usda zones 5 through 9 with a preference for zones 7 through 8. It is an annual blooming plant that can mature to 4 feet tall and 2 feet broad. It has soft green leaves that are a little serrated, offering it a special look when compared to other plants in the salvia genus.

Pineapple sage is popular for its fragrant purple flowers with yellow centers but also makes an appealing decorative plant due to its dark green foliage and low-growing stature. The blooms will appear from late summer season into fall or early winter on this durable annual. They have a pineapple fragrance that draws in bees and butterflies while adding color to your garden beds throughout those months when many other blooming herbs stop working to do so.

The little flowers are densely compacted with their purplish-red petals radiating from a yellow center. The plant itself will grow up to 4 feet tall, however it can likewise expand into a larger bush with some pruning and correct care.

White sage

Scientific name: salvia apiana.

White sage

White sage has silvery gray leaves and is frequently utilized as the common “sage burning” sage. Belonging to the southwestern areas of the united states and mexico. It is normally dried for ritualistic usage, burning as a spot stick. White sage has a strong, pine-like aroma with a smokey surface. It is extremely valued for ceremonial use by many native individuals.

Most varieties of white sage are not recommended for culinary usage since they tend to have more of a burnt flavor than other ranges. White sage is likewise really hardy, and can be grown in zones five to nine.

Mealycup sage

Scientific name: salvia farinacea.

Mealycup sage

Mealycup sage is belonging to texas and the desert areas of new mexico. The leaves are blue-green or grey, with downy hairs below, and grow close together along the stems that can grow in between 12 and 24 inches high. Mealycup sage is also referred to as texas tarragon since it tastes like its french cousin when used in cooking. Herbalists use this plant to assist soothe indigestions, lower tension and treat diarrhea.

The flowers on the mealycup sage are lilac-blue, white or pink relying on the range you pick. This sturdy seasonal grows finest in usda zones 8 through 11 but will prosper in zone 6 if given the right amount of water. You can cut back on the amount you give it throughout the winter season when temperatures drop below freezing. Simply do not permit the plant to wilt totally.

Mealycup sage should be planted in a bright area in either complete or partial sun and watered frequently. Nevertheless, this specific range doesn’t succeed with overwatering– keep the soil a little dry between watering sessions. This is especially true if utilizing a drip irrigation system– excessive water will kill your plant off rather rapidly. If you use sprinklers, wait till after sunset so the leaves have time to completely dry prior to early morning dew appears.

The seeds for mealycup sage are white and grow within pods that are typically around 1 inch.

Mexican bush sage

Scientific name: salvia leucantha.

Mexican bush sage

This variety of sage is native to mexico and main america. It grows between 2 and 3 feet tall and has actually deeply colored, dark green foliage. Mexican bush sage is frequently utilized as a border plant in the landscape due to its capability to grow on high slopes and endure heat conditions with regular watering.

The little purple flowers flower from july through september on this durable seasonal plant however you can also collect leaves for tea or drying when it flowers so the plant stays healthy.

You may find that pinch back your mexican bush sage every couple of years during early spring at around 10 inches tall if you choose it as simply an ornamental flower since they are exceptionally large bushes once they get to a certain size.

Berggarten sage

Taxonomic name: artemisia berggardiana.

Berggarten sage

This variety of sage is often used for decorative functions because of its appealing gray-green leaves. It grows in between 1 and 2 ′ tall with a spread of as much as 3 ′. As the name recommends, berggarten sage grows finest in a climate zone 7 or greater but will do alright in zones 5 through 9 if offered the right amount of water– it doesn’t like to dry entirely!

The flowers flower blue from mid-july into august on this long lasting seasonal plant, but you can also gather fresh leaves throughout summertime for usage in your culinary developments so the plant stays healthy. If you pinch the tips off of your berggarten sage every few years in early spring at about 8 inches high, you can motivate it to grow bushier and thicker.

Forest sage

Also known as: wood sage.

Scientific name: salvia nemorosa.

Forest sage

Woodland sage is a seasonal plant that grows to about 3 feet in height and has green leaves with purple markings. The plant can be utilized as a border for open woods or planted near taller plants. The fragrance of the blooms is said to draw in bees, butterflies, and birds.

Woodland sage spreads by rhizomes, and while they do not cause any damage, they do grow on top of the ground. For this reason, woodlands sage is often grown in containers or raised beds. These plants can be grown in usda zones 4 through 8 and are fairly drought tolerant during the summer months.

Forest sage is often used for medicinal purposes. It has been understood to deal with anxiety, vomiting, and diarrhea. The leaves are also used for teas in some cultures as a solution for colds, coughs, and fevers.

It can be grown outdoors or as part of an indoor garden however is regularly found growing outside near the woods or other gardens where it tends to flourish finest. This plant is best grown from seed and it is very important not to overwater or fertilize woodland sage plants. [6]

Benefits of sage

Sage is a staple herb in various foods around the world.

Its other names include common sage, garden sage and salvia officinalis. It comes from the mint household, alongside other herbs like oregano, rosemary, basil and thyme.

Sage has a strong fragrance and earthy flavor, which is why it’s usually utilized in small amounts. Even so, it’s loaded with a range of essential nutrients and compounds.

Sage is likewise used as a natural cleaning agent, pesticide and ritual item in spiritual sage burning or smudging.

This green herb is readily available fresh, dried or in oil kind– and has many health benefits.

Here are 12 unexpected health benefits of sage.

High in numerous nutrients

Sage loads a healthy dosage of vitamins and minerals.

One teaspoon (0.7 grams) of ground sage contains:.

  • Calories: 2
  • Protein: 0.1 grams
  • Carbohydrates: 0.4 grams
  • Fat: 0.1 grams
  • Vitamin k: 10% of the
  • Recommendation daily intake (rdi)
  • Iron: 1.1% of the rdi
  • Vitamin b6: 1.1% of the rdi
  • Calcium: 1% of the rdi
  • Manganese: 1% of the rdi

As you can see, a small amount of sage loads 10% of your everyday vitamin k requirements (2trusted source).

Sage also includes small amounts of magnesium, zinc, copper and vitamins a, c and e.

What’s more, this fragrant spice homes caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid and rutin– all of which play a role in its useful health results.

Since it’s consumed in tiny quantities, sage offers only small quantities of carbs, calories, protein and fiber.

Summary sage is

Rich in nutrients– specifically vitamin k– despite being low in calories. One.

Teaspoon (0.7 grams) boasts 10% of your day-to-day vitamin k requirements.

Packed with anti-oxidants

Anti-oxidants are particles that help fortify your body’s defenses, reducing the effects of potentially damaging complimentary radicals that are connected to chronic diseases.

Sage includes over 160 distinct polyphenols, which are plant-based chemical substances that serve as anti-oxidants in your body.

Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid and rutin– all found in sage– are linked to outstanding health benefits, such as a lower risk of cancer and improved brain function and memory.

One research study found that drinking 1 cup (240 ml) of sage tea twice everyday considerably increased antioxidant defenses. It likewise reduced both overall cholesterol and “bad” ldl cholesterol, in addition to raised “good” hdl cholesterol.

Summary sage is

Loaded with anti-oxidants that are linked to several health benefits, including.

Enhanced brain function and lower cancer danger.

May support oral health

Sage has antimicrobial effects, which can reduce the effects of microorganisms that promote dental plaque.

In one study, a sage-based mouthwash was revealed to efficiently eliminate the streptococcus mutans bacteria, which is infamous for causing dental cavities.

In a test-tube research study, a sage-based essential oil was shown to eliminate and stop the spread of candida fungus albicans, a fungi that might also cause cavities.

One review kept in mind that sage might deal with throat infections, dental abscesses, contaminated gums and mouth ulcers. Nevertheless, more human research study is required to make extensive suggestions.

Summary sage

Has antimicrobial homes that might kill microbes that motivate the growth.

Of dental plaque.

May ease menopause signs

Throughout menopause, your body experiences a natural decline in the hormonal agent estrogen. This can trigger a wide variety of undesirable symptoms.

Symptoms consist of hot flashes, extreme sweating, vaginal dryness and irritability.

Common sage was typically utilized to decrease menopause symptoms.

It’s believed that substances in sage have estrogen-like properties, enabling them to bind to specific receptors in your brain to assist enhance memory and deal with hot flashes and extreme sweating.

In one research study, everyday use of a sage supplement substantially lowered the number and intensity of hot flashes over eight weeks.

Summary sage

May help reduce the intensity and frequency of menopause signs, such as hot

Flashes and irritability.

May reduce blood glucose levels

The leaves of common sage have been utilized typically as a treatment versus diabetes.

Human and animal research study shows that it may assist lower blood sugar levels.

In one study, sage extract decreased blood glucose levels in rats with type 1 diabetes by triggering a specific receptor. When this receptor is triggered, it can assist clear excess free fatty acids in the blood, which in turn improves insulin level of sensitivity.

Another research study in mice with type 2 diabetes found that sage tea acts like metformin– a drug prescribed to handle blood glucose in people with the exact same illness.

In human beings, sage leaf extract has been shown to lower blood glucose and improve insulin level of sensitivity with a similar result as rosiglitazone, another anti-diabetes drugs.

However, there is still insufficient evidence to advise sage as a diabetes treatment. More human research is needed.

Summary while

Sage might decrease blood sugar levels by increasing insulin sensitivity, more human research is needed.

May assistance memory and brain health

Sage can help support your brain and memory in numerous methods

For one, it’s filled with substances that can function as anti-oxidants, which have been revealed to buffer your brain’s defense system.

It likewise appears to stop the breakdown of the chemical messenger acetylcholine (ach), which has a function in memory. Ach levels appear to fall in alzheimer’s illness.

In one research study, 39 individuals with moderate to moderate alzheimer’s illness taken in either 60 drops (2 ml) of a sage extract supplement or a placebo daily for four months.

Those taking the sage extract carried out much better on tests that measured memory, analytical, thinking and other cognitive abilities.

In healthy adults, sage was shown to improve memory in low doses. Higher dosages also elevated state of mind and increased awareness, calmness and contentedness.

In both younger and older adults, sage appears to enhance memory and brain function.

Summary research studies

Program that sage may enhance memory, brain function and symptoms of alzheimer’s.


May lower ‘bad’ ldl cholesterol

Every minute, more than someone in the us dies from heart problem.

High “bad” ldl cholesterol is an essential heart disease danger factor, impacting one in three americans.

Sage might help lower “bad” ldl cholesterol, which can develop in your arteries and possibly trigger damage.

In one study, consuming sage tea twice daily decreased “bad” ldl cholesterol and total blood cholesterol while raising “great” hdl cholesterol after just 2 weeks.

Numerous other human studies highlight a similar result with sage extract.

Summary intake

Of sage and sage products have actually been revealed to reduce “bad” ldl cholesterol levels.

And raise “great” hdl cholesterol levels.

May secure against specific cancers

Cancer is a leading cause of death in which cells grow abnormally.

Surprisingly, animal and test-tube research studies show that sage may fight certain types of cancer, including those of the mouth, colon, liver, cervix, breast, skin and kidney.

In these studies, sage extracts not only suppress the development of cancer cells however likewise stimulate cell death.

While this research is motivating, human studies are needed to figure out whether sage is effective at fighting cancer in humans.

Summary test-tube

And animal research study suggest that sage might fight specific cancer cells, though.

Human research is needed.

Other potential health advantages

Sage and its compounds are linked to several other health benefits.

Nevertheless, these advantages have not been extensively researched.

May alleviate diarrhea: fresh sage is a.

Standard treatment for diarrhea. Test-tube and animal studies discovered that.

It consists of compounds that might reduce diarrhea by unwinding your diet plan.

May assistance bone health: vitamin k,

Which sage uses in big amounts, contributes in bone health. A deficiency in this vitamin.

Is linked to bone thinning and fractures.

May combat skin aging: numerous test-tube

Studies suggest that sage substances might assist fight signs of aging, such as wrinkles.

Summary sage

Has been linked to other possible health benefits, such as relieving diarrhea,.

Supporting bone health and combatting skin aging.

Easy to add to your diet plan

Sage is available in several types and can be utilized in a variety of methods.

Fresh sage leaves have a strong fragrant flavor and are best used sparingly in dishes.

Here are some ways you can include fresh sage to your diet plan:.

  • Sprinkle as a garnish on soups.
  • Mix into a stuffing in roast dishes.
  • Integrate chopped leaves with butter to make sage butter.
  • Include chopped leaves to tomato sauce.
  • Serve it with eggs in an omelet.

Dried sage is frequently chosen by cooks and comes ground, rubbed or in whole leaves.

Here are some ways you can use dried sage:.

  • As a rub for meats.
  • As a flavoring for roasted veggies.
  • Combined with mashed potatoes or squash for earthy flavor.

You can likewise acquire sage items, such as sage tea and sage extract supplements.

Summary sage is

Extremely versatile and easy to add to soups, stews and baked meals. It’s.

Offered fresh, dried or ground. [7]

Possible side effects

When taken in as a spice in food, sage is thought about safe for adults and kids.

Health care experts typically agree that:.

Sage needs to be safe when taken in medicinal quantities for no more than two months.

Sage might be risky when it’s taken in high dosages or for a very long time. Some species of sage, including common sage (salvia officinalis), contain a chemical called thujone. Excessive thujone can cause seizures and damage the liver and nerve system.

Sage applied to the skin is perhaps safe when utilized for approximately one week.

Sage essential oil, breathed in as aromatherapy, should be safe. Like some other essential oils, sage oil can be toxic and must never be taken orally. Even when used topically, the oil must be diluted or it could cause rash or irritation.

Sage can likewise make anticonvulsant drugs less reliable if utilized in excess, including phenobarbital, mysoline (primidone), depakote (valproic acid), neurontin (gabapentin), tegretol (carbamazepine), and dilantin (phenytoin).

The extreme use of sage if you’re taking diabetes medications can set off a potentially serious drop in blood glucose, leading to hypoglycemia. If you use sage pills or extracts, never ever take in more than the recommended dose on the item label. Sage medications should be used with caution in individuals with impaired kidney function.

Tell your doctor about any medications you’re taking, including herbal solutions like sage, so that you’re completely familiar with the prospective interactions and dangers. [8]


Doses of 300 and 600 mg of dried sage leaf have actually been investigated in mood and cognitive performance research studies. A standardized s. Officinalis ethanolic extract at a dose of 333 mg was used in a research study assessing its results on memory and attention in healthy older volunteers. A normal dose has actually been referred to as 4 to 6 g/day of the sage leaf. [9]


Drying medications (anticholinergic drugs) interaction ranking: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health company.

Typical sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) may increase levels of specific chemicals in the body that work in the brain, heart, and somewhere else. Some drying medications called “anticholinergic drugs” can also these very same chemicals, but in a different way. These drying medications may decrease the impacts of these sage types, and these sage species might reduce the impacts of drying medications.

Some of these drying medications include atropine, scopolamine, some medications utilized for allergic reactions (antihistamines), and some medications used for depression (antidepressants).

Estrogens interaction rating: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

Geraniol, a chemical in spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia), may have some of the very same effects as estrogen. However, geraniol found in spanish sage isn’t as strong as estrogen pills. Taking spanish sage together with estrogen pills might decrease the results of estrogen pills.

Some estrogen pills consist of conjugated equine estrogens (premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

Medications changed by the liver (cytochrome p450 2c19 (cyp2c19) substrates) interaction score: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Sage might reduce how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage in addition to some medications that are broken down by the liver may increase the impacts and side effects of some medications. Before taking sage as a medication, talk with your doctor if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications that are altered by the liver consist of omeprazole (prilosec), lansoprazole (prevacid), and pantoprazole (protonix); diazepam (valium); carisoprodol (soma); nelfinavir (viracept); and others.

Medications changed by the liver (cytochrome p450 2c9 (cyp2c9) substrates) interaction rating: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Sage might decrease how rapidly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage in addition to some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the results and negative effects of some medications. Prior to taking sage as a medication, speak to your doctor if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications that are altered by the liver consist of diclofenac (cataflam, voltaren), ibuprofen (motrin), meloxicam (mobic), and piroxicam (feldene); celecoxib (celebrex); amitriptyline (elavil); warfarin (coumadin); glipizide (glucotrol); losartan (cozaar); and others.

Medications changed by the liver (cytochrome p450 2d6 (cyp2d6) substrates) interaction score: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health service provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Sage might decrease how rapidly the body breaks down some medications. Taking sage in addition to some medications that are altered by the liver can increase the effects and adverse effects of your medication. Prior to taking sage as a medication, talk with your doctor if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications that are changed by the body consist of amitriptyline (elavil), codeine, desipramine (norpramin), flecainide (tambocor), fluoxetine (prozac), ondansetron (zofran), tramadol (ultram), and others.

Medications changed by the liver (cytochrome p450 2e1 (cyp2e1) substrates) interaction score: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health company.

Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Common sage may increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking common sage in addition to some medications that are changed by the liver might reduce the impacts and side effects of your medication. Before taking typical sage as a medication, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are altered by the liver.

Some medications that are altered by the liver consist of acetaminophen, chlorzoxazone (parafon specialty), ethanol, theophylline, and drugs used for anesthesia during surgery such as enflurane (ethrane), halothane (fluothane), isoflurane (forane), and methoxyflurane (penthrane).

Medications changed by the liver (cytochrome p450 3a4 (cyp3a4) substrates) interaction rating: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Sage might reduce how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage in addition to some medications that are broken down by the liver might increase the impacts and adverse effects of these medications. Prior to taking sage as a medication, speak with your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are altered by the liver.

Medications that might be impacted consist of certain heart medications called calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil), cancer drugs (etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine), fungus-fighting drugs (ketoconazole, itraconazole), glucocorticoids, alfentanil (alfenta), cisapride (propulsid), fentanyl (sublimaze), lidocaine (xylocaine), losartan (cozaar), midazolam (versed), and others.

Medications for alzheimer’s disease (acetylcholinesterase (pains) inhibitors) interaction ranking: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health provider.

Typical sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase particular chemicals in the brain, heart, and somewhere else in the body. Some medications utilized for alzheimer’s illness also impact these chemicals. Taking these types of sage together with medications for alzheimer’s illness might increase effects and negative effects of medications used for alzheimer’s disease.

Medications for diabetes (antidiabetes drugs) interaction score: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health service provider.

Sage may reduce blood glucose. Diabetes medications are also utilized to lower blood sugar level. Taking sage together with diabetes medications might trigger your blood glucose to go too low. Display your blood glucose closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might require to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes consist of glimepiride (amaryl), glyburide (diabeta, glynase prestab, micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (actos), rosiglitazone (avandia), chlorpropamide (diabinese), glipizide (glucotrol), tolbutamide (orinase), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (antihypertensive drugs) interaction score: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health company.

Common sage (salvia officinalis) seems to lower blood pressure. Taking typical sage along with medications for hypertension may cause your high blood pressure to go too low. On the other hand, spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) may increase blood pressure. Taking spanish sage in addition to medications for hypertension might reduce the results of these medications.

Some medications for high blood pressure consist of captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), losartan (cozaar), valsartan (diovan), diltiazem (cardizem), amlodipine (norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (hydrodiuril), furosemide (lasix), and many others.

Medications moved by pumps in cells (p-glycoprotein substrates) interaction ranking: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

Some medications are moved by pumps into cells. Typical sage (salvia officinalis) may make these pumps less active and increase how much of some medications get taken in by the body. This may increase the side effects of some medications.

Some medications that are moved by these pumps consist of etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, cimetidine, ranitidine, diltiazem, verapamil, corticosteroids, erythromycin, cisapride (propulsid), fexofenadine (allegra), cyclosporine, loperamide (imodium), quinidine, and others.

Medications utilized to prevent seizures (anticonvulsants) interaction score: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

Medications used to prevent seizures affect chemicals in the brain. Sage may also affect chemicals in the brain. By affecting chemicals in the brain, sage may decrease the efficiency of medications utilized to prevent seizures.

Some medications utilized to prevent seizures include phenobarbital, primidone (mysoline), valproic acid (depakene), gabapentin (neurontin), carbamazepine (tegretol), phenytoin (dilantin), and others.

Sedative medications (benzodiazepines) interaction ranking: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health provider.

Typical sage (salvia officinalis) may trigger sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedatives. Taking common sage together with sedative medications might trigger excessive drowsiness.

A few of these sedative medications include clonazepam (klonopin), diazepam (valium), lorazepam (ativan), and others.

Sedative medications (cns depressants) interaction score: moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

Sage might trigger drowsiness and sleepiness. Medications that triggers sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking sage along with sedative medications might cause too much drowsiness.

Some sedative medications include clonazepam (klonopin), lorazepam (ativan), phenobarbital (donnatal), zolpidem (ambien), and others.

Different medications used for glaucoma, alzheimer’s illness, and other conditions (cholinergic drugs) interaction rating: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health company.

Typical sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) may increase specific chemicals in the brain, heart, and in other places in the body. Some medications utilized for glaucoma, alzheimer’s disease, and other conditions likewise affect these chemicals. Taking these types of sage with these medications may increase the opportunity of negative effects.

Some of these medications utilized for glaucoma, alzheimer’s illness, and other conditions consist of pilocarpine (pilocar and others), donepezil (aricept), tacrine (cognex), and others. [10]


Contraindicated in:.

  • Hypersensitivity;
  • Pregnancy and lactation.

Usage meticulously in:.

  • Seizure disorders;
  • Hypertension;
  • Diabetes [11]


The objective of this paper is to review the current advancements in the expedition of sage (salvia species) as phytotherapy and to illustrate its potential as a healing representative. Salvia species might represent a natural, safe, and efficient treatment for numerous diseases and their signs. In current years, with the boost in pharmacological knowledge about the beneficial impacts of sage, particularly s. Officinalis, these organic medications with anti-bacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, complimentary radical scavenging, and antitumor activities have been found to be extremely efficient in the development of novel natural drugs to prevent, control, and deal with many small health issue in addition to more severe and complex illness such as diabetes, alzheimer’s, and cancer. It needs to be remembered that clinicians need to remain cautious until more certain studies demonstrate the safety, quality, and effectiveness of s. Officinalis. For these reasons, substantial pharmacological and chemical experiments, together with human metabolic studies ought to be the focus of our future research studies, and more potential of s. Officinalis needs to be used in brand-new healing drugs and supply a basis for future research study on the application of medical plants. [12]


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