probiotic, any of various live microbes, normally germs or yeast, that are ingested or otherwise administered as a means of potentially helping the avoidance and treatment of particular health conditions, mainly gastrointestinal disorders. The idea that the intake of particular bacteria can benefit food digestion as well as immune function emerged in the early 20th century, with the work of Russian-born zoologist and microbiologist √Člie Metchnikoff. Interest in probiotics surged in the early 21st century, when more became known about the human microbiome. [1]

The essentials of probiotics

Probiotics are foods or supplements which contain live microbes intended to preserve or improve the “great” germs (typical microflora) in the body. Prebiotics are foods (generally high-fiber foods) that act as food for human microflora. Prebiotics are used with the objective of enhancing the balance of these microbes.

Probiotics remain in foods such as yogurt and sauerkraut. Prebiotics are in foods such as entire grains, bananas, greens, onions, garlic, soybeans and artichokes. In addition, probiotics and prebiotics are contributed to some foods and offered as dietary supplements.

Research is ongoing into the relationship of the gut microflora to disease. The health advantages of presently readily available probiotics and prebiotics have actually not been conclusively proved.

Nevertheless, side effects are unusual, and most healthy grownups can safely include foods that contain prebiotics and probiotics to their diet plans. Future research may lead to innovative probiotics with higher potential to enhance health.

If you’re thinking about taking supplements, consult your medical professional to be sure they’re right for you [2]


The term probiotic is derived from Greek and literally means “for life.” It was first created in 1965 by Lilley and Stillwell to describe substances secreted by one microorganism that promote the development of another In 1974, Parker modified this definition to “… organisms and compounds which contribute to digestive microbial balance”. The existing definition of probiotics by Food and Farming Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) is “live microorganisms which when administered in appropriate amounts give a health advantage to the host”. Probiotic organisms require specific qualities to enable them to apply optimum restorative effects. Of these characteristics, there are some that are considered almost essential for a probiotic to have healing results, including gastric acid and bile salt stability, ability to stick to the intestinal tract mucosa, and capability to colonize the digestive tract [3]


The word ‘probiotic’ is originated from the Greek meaning ‘for life’ and has actually had numerous different meanings throughout the years. It was first utilized by Lilley and Stillwell in 1965 to explain substances produced by one microorganism which stimulated the growth of another. It therefore indicated the specific opposite of ‘antibiotic’ and its etymological pedigree was beyond reproach. However, its usage in this type did not continue and it was subsequently used by Sperti (1971) to describe tissue extracts which promoted microbial growth. It was not until 1974 that Parker utilized it in the context in which we will utilize it in this book. His definition was ‘Organisms and substances which contribute to intestinal tract microbial balance’. This meaning related probiotic usage to the intestinal tract microflora but the addition of ‘substances’ provided it a large connotation which would include prescription antibiotics. In an effort to improve the definition, Fuller (1989) redefined probiotics as ‘A live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by enhancing its intestinal microbial balance’. This modified meaning stressed the requirement for a probiotic to be practical. [4]

System of action

Probiotics are a combination of live beneficial bacteria and/or yeasts that naturally live in your body. Bacteria is typically viewed in an unfavorable light as something that makes you sick. However, you have two type of bacteria continuously in and on your body– great germs and bad germs. Probiotics are made up of great bacteria that helps keep your body healthy and working well. This excellent bacteria assists you in many ways, including battling bad bacteria when you have excessive of it, helping you feel much better.

Probiotics become part of a bigger image concerning germs and your body– your microbiome. Think of a microbiome as a diverse neighborhood of organisms, such as a forest, that interact to keep your body healthy. This community is made up of things called microorganisms. You have trillions of microorganisms on and in your body. These microorganisms are a mix of:.

  • Bacteria.
  • Fungis (consisting of yeasts).
  • Infections.
  • Protozoa.

Everybody’s microbiome is distinct. No 2 individuals have the same microbial cells– even twins are various.

For a microorganism to be called a probiotic, it must have numerous attributes. These include being able to:.

  • Be isolated from a human.
  • Make it through in your intestine after ingestion (being eaten).
  • Have a proven benefit to you.
  • Be securely consumed.

Where do useful probiotics (microorganisms) reside in my body?

Though the most common location linked to helpful microorganisms is your gut (primarily big intestinal tracts), you have several areas in and on your body that host good microbes. These areas are in contact with the “outside world” and include your:.

  • Gut.
  • Mouth.
  • Vaginal area.
  • Urinary tract.
  • Skin.
  • Lungs.

How do probiotics work?

The main job of probiotics, or great germs, is to maintain a healthy balance in your body. Think about it as keeping your body in neutral. When you are sick, bad germs enters your body and increases in number. This knocks your body out of balance. Good germs works to eliminate off the bad bacteria and bring back the balance within your body, making you feel better.

Good bacteria keeps you healthy by supporting your immune function and controlling swelling. Specific types of excellent bacteria can also:.

  1. Help your body digest food.
  2. Keep bad germs from getting out of control and making you ill.
  3. Create vitamins.
  4. Assist support the cells that line your gut to prevent bad bacteria that you may have consumed (through food or drinks) from entering your blood.
  5. Breakdown and take in medications.

This balancing act is naturally taking place in your body all of the time. You do not actually need to take probiotic supplements to make it occur. Good bacteria is simply a natural part of your body. Consuming a healthy diet abundant in fiber every day assists to keep the variety of great bacteria at appropriate levels.

What are the most typical types of probiotic bacteria?

Though there are many kinds of bacteria that can be thought about probiotics, there are two specific kinds of germs that prevail probiotics found in stores. These include:.

  • Lactobacillus.
  • Bifidobacterium.

Probiotics are also comprised of good yeast. The most common type of yeast found in probiotics is:.

  • Saccharomyces boulardii.

Can I use probiotics to help with medical conditions?

There is currently a large amount of research taking place around the idea of what probiotics can do for your body. Even though there are a great deal of potentially positive results, researchers are still working to discover definitive answers about how probiotics can aid with numerous conditions.

Nevertheless, there are some medical conditions where probiotics may help. This can vary between people indicating that what works for someone might not work for another. These can likewise vary based upon the specific probiotic that is taken.

A few of the conditions that might be assisted by increasing the quantity of probiotics in your body (through food or supplements) include:.

  • Diarrhea (both diarrhea brought on by prescription antibiotics and from Clostridioides difficile (C. diff) infection).
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • Yeast infections.
  • Urinary system infections.
  • Gum disease.
  • Lactose intolerance.
  • Eczema (atopic dermatitis).
  • Upper breathing infections (ear infections, common cold, sinus problems).
  • Sepsis (particularly in infants).

Can I take or eat something to increase the good probiotics (microorganisms) in my body?

You can increase the quantity of great microbes in your body through foods, drinks and supplements. You may already have certain foods in your daily diet which contain probiotics. Fermented foods in particular (yogurt and pickles, for example) are house to a host of great germs that benefit your body. There are likewise fermented beverages like kombucha (fermented tea) or kefir (fermented dairy beverage) that present additional probiotics into your diet plan.

Apart from food, you can include probiotics to your diet plan through dietary supplements. These aren’t drugs, so they do not require to be authorized by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). It is necessary that you always talk with your doctor before beginning any type of supplement or major modification to your diet plan.

Can I get probiotics from food?

You can definitely increase advantageous microorganisms in your body from the foods you eat. Specific foods have probiotics (great germs) in them and can benefit the health of your microbiome.

These foods can be introduced into your diet plan at any point of the day. You might even be routinely eating them now and not understand that they consist of probiotics. You will want to check the food label for “live and active cultures.” A couple of tips for simply a few of the probiotic-rich foods you can contribute to your diet plan and often to attempt them consist of:.

For breakfast, try:.

  • Sourdough bread.

For lunch, shot:.

  • Cottage cheese.

For a treat, try:.

  • Fermented pickles.

For dinner, shot:.

  • Fermented sauerkraut.
  • Miso soup.

Make sure you are still producing a well balanced and healthy meal each time you take a seat to eat. Though adding probiotic-rich foods into your diet plan will not hurt you, balance is still essential. Adding too much of just one food prevents your body from reaping the benefits of other food groups.

How do I take a probiotic supplement?

There are numerous ways you can take a probiotic supplement. They can be found in a variety of kinds, consisting of in:.

  • Foods.
  • Drinks.
  • Capsules or tablets.
  • Powders.
  • Liquids.

Probiotic supplements might be combined with a prebiotic. Prebiotics are complicated carbohydrates that feed the microbes in your gut. Essentially, prebiotics are the “food source” for the excellent bacteria. They help feed the good germs and keep it healthy. Prebiotics include inulin, pectin and resistant starches.

When you have a supplement that integrates a probiotic and prebiotic, it’s called a synbiotic.

How reliable are probiotics?

Researchers are currently unsure how effective probiotic supplements are for treating conditions. There’s constant research on the topic. While many research studies have had positive results on the effect of probiotic supplements, more research is still required.

It’s also essential to bear in mind that unlike medications, dietary supplements do not require to be authorized by the FDA. This means that producers can offer supplements just with “claims” of security and efficiency.

Constantly talk with your healthcare provider (or pediatrician) prior to taking a supplement or offering one to your kid. Supplements might interfere with medicines you might be taking. If you are pregnant or breast feeding, contact your provider prior to taking any supplement.

Exist any storage instructions for probiotics?

Numerous probiotic stress are extremely vulnerable and need to be secured from heat, oxygen, light and humidity. The probiotics might start to break down or pass away if they are exposed to these components. Because of this, you might require to cool your probiotics or shop it in a particular location. Refrigerating specific probiotic strains guarantees that they’re still feasible when you go to utilize them and will still provide the full advantage of the probiotic. Always check out the labels on any probiotic product you acquire to ensure you keep it correctly and use it within the expiration date.

How safe are probiotics?

Since microbes used as probiotics currently exist naturally in your body, probiotic foods and supplements are typically thought about safe. They may trigger allergic reactions, and might also trigger mild indigestion, diarrhea, or flatulence (passing gas) and bloating for the very first few days after starting to take them.

There are particular individuals who need to utilize caution when using probiotic supplements. There is a danger of infection in some individuals. These individuals consist of those who have:.

  • A weakened body immune system (those going through chemotherapy for instance).
  • A critical disease.
  • Just recently had surgical treatment.

Care needs to likewise be utilized when providing probiotics to very sick infants.

Constantly talk to your healthcare provider prior to beginning a probiotic supplement.

Can probiotics harm me?

For the majority of healthy individuals, probiotics do not trigger any damage. They are usually considered safe and are often “given a try” to see if they might help with numerous medical conditions. There’s a lot of research around the subject of probiotics. Researchers are attempting to identify when and how they should be used, along with how efficient they are. Speak with your healthcare provider prior to starting a probiotic supplement since there are some cases where you should not be taking them. It’s always best to have the discussion first prior to starting a brand-new supplement.

Are there any threats associated with probiotics?

Probiotics are typically considered safe. However, there are some dangers linked to the supplements. These dangers are increased if you have a medical condition that compromises your immune system, have actually just recently had surgical treatment or have other serious medical conditions.

Unlikely, but possible, threats can consist of:.

  • Developing an infection.
  • Establishing a resistance to prescription antibiotics.
  • Developing harmful by-products from the probiotic supplement.

Should I give probiotics to my kids?

Probiotics can be beneficial for both grownups and kids. If your child has a health problem that needs an antibiotic medication for treatment, taking a probiotic can assist shorten symptoms. Probiotics can also be utilized to help relieve constipation, heartburn, diarrhea, gas and eczema in kids.

Introducing probiotics into your child’s diet plan through food is normally a safe method to give them probiotics. Foods like yogurt and cottage cheese are often part of a well balanced diet plan and can add in excellent germs without much danger.

There are commercially readily available probiotic supplements particularly developed for babies and children. However, it is essential to talk to your child’s pediatrician prior to giving them any probiotic supplement or changing the kid’s diet plan to include probiotic-rich foods.

Do I need to take probiotics after I take antibiotics?

Antibiotic medications are typically needed to combat an infection. Nevertheless, while prescription antibiotics are killing the bad germs, they are also knocking out the great bacteria in your body. Some people develop conditions like diarrhea after taking an antibiotic. In other people, this might allow for actually bad germs to take control of and populate the gut, such as with C. diff. Some research has shown a favorable connection between taking probiotics after an antibiotic and remedy for diarrhea. This hasn’t been proven yet and does not work for everyone.

The thought behind adding probiotics back into your body after taking an antibiotic is that it can repopulate the excellent germs that was destroyed by the prescription antibiotics and re-boot your system. The extra good bacteria assists repopulate your gut and eradicate any remaining bad germs. Many individuals feel that including probiotics won’t hurt, might assist you feel better a little faster and prevent diarrhea.

Should I try probiotics?

If you have an interest in including probiotics to your diet plan, it’s worth a conversation with your healthcare provider. Numerous service providers may recommend giving them a try to see if they assist with your basic health. It is very important to bear in mind that not all probiotics behave the same way and have the very same effects. Each has their own individual benefits. They generally don’t cause damage. One simple method to begin can be by just introducing probiotic-rich foods into your diet plan, like yogurt.

Before you start any supplements, ensure you speak with your doctor. Your supplier may be able to point you in the right instructions, assisting you figure out the best probiotic to take, how much to take and when to take it. A discussion is always worth the time when it worries your health. [5]


Probiotics work bacteria. They exist throughout the body, although individuals largely associate them with the stomach and intestines. As evidence of a link in between the gut microbiome and general health grows, interest in probiotics is increasing.

Individuals typically consume probiotics in the hope of balancing their digestive tract plants, likewise called the gut microbiome.

There are numerous strains of probiotic germs, however the main ones are of the Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium groups.

Prebiotics are various from probiotics. They are nutrients in food. The body does not absorb prebiotics, however these nutrients help promote the growth or activity of beneficial germs.

Food sources of probiotics consist of fermented foods, such as some yogurts and kimchi. Probiotic supplements are likewise readily available.

Discover more about the difference between prebiotics and probiotics.

Health benefits

Share on PinterestConsuming probiotics through supplements or foods, such as kimchi, might assist enhance the gut microbiome.

Probiotics might benefit the body in numerous methods, such as:

  • boosting the health of the gut microbiome
  • restoring balance to the microbiome after a disease or treatment
  • supporting the immune system

Probiotics may benefit people with different health conditions. However, determining precisely who would benefit from which type of bacteria will need more research.

Below are some methods which probiotics might assist maintain health.


Specific stress of probiotics have revealed favorable results in dealing with diarrhea and gastroenteritis– swelling of the gut’s lining, which can trigger diarrhea.

Probiotics might help combat different types of diarrhea, consisting of erratic transmittable diarrhea, intense watery diarrhea, and diarrhea due to a rotavirus.

Nevertheless, the effects would likely depend upon the type and dose of probiotic.

Mental health issue

Studies have actually indicated a link between the gut microbiota and the central nervous system, including the brain. This link is referred to as the gut-brain axis.

Some researchers believe that germs in the gut could impact the nervous system and the way that individuals believe and feel.

The findings recommend that probiotics might one day support the treatment of psychological health concerns, such as stress and anxiety and anxiety, and possibly some neurological conditions, too.

High cholesterol

Consuming foods including probiotic Lactobacillus germs might decrease levels of low-density lipoprotein, or “bad” cholesterol, as well as overall cholesterol. the effect that probiotics might have on total cholesterol.

After studying data from nearly 2,000 people, the researchers concluded that probiotic supplements could significantly decrease total cholesterol levels in the blood.

However, the effectiveness may depend on the type and dosage of the supplement. More research studies are required to verify the outcomes and clarify which probiotics would be useful.

High blood pressure

Milk fermented with stress of Lactobacillus might assist lower high blood pressure.

The evaluation likewise showed that taking in probiotics could lead to a boost in levels of vitamin D– which assists avoid hypertension– in the blood.

If additional research study validates that probiotics can assist handle high blood pressure, these germs could one day contribute in treating and preventing heart problem.

Irritable or inflammatory bowel

There is evidence that probiotics might assist treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). a multi-strain probiotic might improve IBS symptoms.

The researchers required further investigations into whether strains of Akkermansia, Bacteroides, and Faecalibacterium bacteria could contribute in future treatments.

Probiotics did not regularly support the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, or IBD, other than potentially for one kind of the illness: ulcerative colitis.


In lab tests, scientists have actually found that a particular kind of the probiotic germs Lactobacillus paracasei might secure the gut from infection by Listeria, a more hazardous kind of bacteria.

Probiotics could help treat and avoid Listeria infection. Probiotics, if proven beneficial, would be less most likely to disturb the balance of the microbiome than the standard antibiotic treatment for this infection.

Psoriasis and fatigue syndrome

Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 might benefit individuals with conditions such as psoriasis and fatigue syndrome.

This specific kind of bacteria is frequently included in supplements to fortify the digestive system.

Food sources of probiotics

Foods which contain natural probiotics consist of some types of:.

  • yogurt
  • kefir
  • buttermilk
  • soft cheese
  • soy-based products, such as miso, tempeh, and some soy drinks
  • kimchi
  • unpasteurized sauerkraut
  • nutrition bars
  • juice
  • cereal

Many products are marketed as containing probiotics, however the body is more likely to gain from specific products. Eating soft cheese, for instance, may be a good way of ensuring that probiotic bacteria reach the gut in a helpful type. [6]

Benefits of probiotics for kids

If your kids are usually fit and healthy, you may wonder why they need probiotics. However, if you check out the 2nd article in our ‘Early life microbiome’ series, ‘Kid Microbiome: Dr Kate’s Guide’, you can see that the balance of the gut microbiome is very essential. Childhood years include aspects such as school, tension, high-sugar & & low-fibre diet plan, medications/antibiotics, and busy lifestyles which can all affect your child’s microbiome structure and minimize levels of friendly bacteria. There are many ways to support gut health, and you can learn more about this in our short article Gut Health, All You Required to Know. But giving your children probiotics, also referred to as live cultures or good/friendly bacteria, are a simple method to ensure they have additional assistance they may need in the pressure of daily life.

Food digestion and energy

Your child is continuously growing! As such it’s essential they are digesting their food and absorbing the nutrients well. Our microbiome supplies gastrointestinal enzymes to help kids to break down their food1. Plus, they support a healthy gut environment guaranteeing good nutrient absorption. Numerous microbes in our gut can also produce important vitamins2!

Supporting immunity

Schools and nurseries are well-known hangouts for harmful bugs, where they can rapidly spread. With 70% of our immune system being found in the gut, the bright side is that you can support your kid’s immunity with probiotics. Our gut microbes basically function as instructors, assisting the immune system respond to hazards properly. Probiotics become part of our friendly bacteria barrier which protects our gut cells and immune system.

Health care professionals can find out more about the complex relationship between probiotics and the body immune system in this article on our sis website, Probiotic Professionals: Probiotics for Resistance.

Mood and wellness

Probiotics might be able to help by modulating our state of mind through the connection of our brain and microbiome known as the gut-brain axis. It’s approximated that 90% of the delighted hormone serotonin, is produced in the gut. The neurotransmitter GABA is likewise crucial for assisting us to ‘turn off’ and sleep and GABA can be produced by friendly bacteria in the gut such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. Find out more about the Gut-Brain Axis and Probiotics.

Skin health

Regrettably, children frequently suffer from skin problems like eczema and acne, presently 1 in 5 kids in the UK have eczema. Probiotics may have the ability to enhance skin health by supporting a healthy gut lining, increasing the levels of excellent germs in the gut, and calming down swelling. For additional information, have a look at Probiotics for Acne and Skin Health. [7]

Negative effects

When you present a probiotic supplement to your body it begins to make adjustments to the modification occurring in your gut microbiome and works to get rid of hazardous toxic substances from your body. This is why some individuals experience a couple of preliminary negative effects. These effects are usually moderate and tend to vanish in a few days. Give your body time to change and try lowering the dose for some time, if required. Here are some common probiotic side effects you might experience momentarily and how to discover relief.


When you consume foods that are abundant in proteins, compounds called biogenic amines (including tryptamine and antihistamine) are formed. These compounds can trigger the main nervous system to get delighted, and the reduction or boost in blood flow might cause headaches. Such headaches typically do not last for more than a week. How to find relief: To discover relief from headaches make certain to get a lot of rest and consume additional water. Water can help your body procedure and break down proteins faster and remove headaches.

Gas and Bloating

Gas and bloating are common probiotic negative effects when starting a routine, particularly if you suffer from little digestive tract bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). This is known as the Herxheimer Reaction, a condition that occurs when damaging bacteria dies and produces gas. How to find relief: If you become gassy or experience abdominal pain or cramps attempt taking smaller dosages of the probiotics for some time. As soon as your body is utilized to it and there are no negative effects, you can slowly increase the dose to reach your needed level. You can also discover relief by drinking chamomile or peppermint tea or using a warm compress or heating pad on areas of discomfort.

Acid Reflux

Acid reflux occurs when the acidic contents of your stomach travel back into the food pipeline. This produces a burning feeling in the lower chest region, often after a meal. This, similar to bloating and gas, also takes place when probiotics kill off the harmful bacteria in your body and they release toxins. How to find relief: To find relief from acid reflux dissolve your probiotic tablet in some water and drink it slowly instead of straight swallowing the supplement. This alleviates the intro of the probiotic to your body and helps reduce digestion-related side effects. It also helps to avoid setting after meals and consume slowly to offer your body time to digest your food and stabilize your gut plants.


Queasiness normally takes place from stomach acid production once you start taking probiotic supplements. How to discover relief: Taking your probiotics in addition to a meal, with yogurt, or a healthy smoothie might help you find remedy for queasiness.


While it may be paradoxical, some individuals experience irregularity within a few days of starting probiotics. If your body has lots of toxin-producing damaging bacteria, waste and toxin elimination might not happen as quick as it is produced which can be the reason for irregularity. Periodically, some types of probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacilli can likewise cause this adverse effects. How to find relief: To find relief from constipation, include more fiber in your diet together with your routine probiotic supplements. This might provide you relief and regularize your defecation.


Probiotics work towards the smooth operation of your gastrointestinal system and cleansing of the digestive tract. In fact, one of the most typical uses of probiotic supplements is to combat diarrhea. Nevertheless, when you begin taking probiotics, you may experience moderate boost in gas, bloating, thirst, and some digestive issues consisting of diarrhea. Diarrhea can be unpleasant, however, rest assured that your body’s gastrointestinal system will regain balance within 2 week. How to find relief: To find relief from diarrhea, take your supplement on an empty stomach and keep drinking plenty of water. You can likewise increase your fiber consumption and consume more starches such as red potatoes.

Itching or Rashes on the Skin

When germs in the body launches contaminants, it is released through the pores of the skin. This is why individuals who have actually recently begun taking probiotics sometimes experience skin infections and rashes. Sometimes, this also happens when the probiotic supplement uses poor-quality active ingredients for the formulation. (8) Probiotics assistance support the immune system, so after a period of modification, this response needs to settle down, and you might even experience clearer skin if you’ve had skin problems in the past. How to find relief: To discover relief from skin inflammations always pick a top quality probiotic that only utilizes the very best components. You can likewise use honey, coconut oil, or another high-oil ointment to the afflicted location. [8]

Probiotic Dosage for Adults

As with anything you take to improve your health, dose is very important. If you take too much, you might cause new problems, and insufficient won’t do anything.

There’s a common mistaken belief that probiotics ought to be taken every day, Probiotics are a tool that can be practical when trying to improve certain conditions usually related to the stomach system, but are not a daily supplement.

There is still a requirement for a lot more research study on the microbiome of the gut. Because of the lack of deeper information, we don’t understand what the maximum balance is for germs in the stomach.

While you can discover recommended dosages for adults with different disorders, it’s best to speak with a doctor about the ideal dosage for you. Only a physician who has actually analyzed you will be able to identify what your health requires or to provide your particular dose amounts. [9]


Probiotics use a wide variety of health benefits.

However, their results on weight are combined and seem to depend upon the kind of probiotic.

Proof indicates that Lactobacillus gasseri may assist individuals with weight problems drop weight and belly fat. In addition, a probiotic supplement blend called VSL # 3 may decrease weight gain in those on a high calorie diet.

At the end of the day, particular types of probiotics may have modest results on your weight, specifically when combined with a healthy, whole-foods diet plan.

However, there are many other reasons to take a probiotic supplement.

They can improve your digestive health and cardiovascular threat factors, lower inflammation, and even assist fight depression and stress and anxiety. [10]


Click to rate this post!
[Total: 0 Average: 0]

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.