Passionflower

Any of a genus (passiflora of the family passifloraceae, the passionflower household) of chiefly tropical woody tendriled climbing up vines or put up herbs with typically showy flowers and pulpy frequently edible berries. [1]

Summary

Passion flower (passiflora incarnata) is a climbing up vine with white and purple flowers. The chemicals in passion flower have calming results.

Enthusiasm flower is belonging to the southeastern united states and main and south america. It’s been typically utilized to help with sleep.

Individuals use enthusiasm flower for anxiety, consisting of anxiety prior to surgery. Some individuals likewise take enthusiasm flower for insomnia, stress, adhd, pain, and numerous other conditions. But there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses. In some foods and beverages, enthusiasm flower is added for flavoring. [2]

Enthusiasm flower passiflora– history

The history of passiflora or ‘passion flower’ (flos passionis) is fascinating and special. It acquired its name from descriptions of its flower parts supplied in the seventeenth century by spanish priests in south america, known at that time as the ‘brand-new spain’. It was known by the spanish as “la flor de las cinco llagas” or the ‘the flower with the five wounds.’ ‘passionis’ describes (christ’s) suffering. The parts were translated from illustrations and dried plants by giacomo bosio, a churchman and historian, in rome (1609 ), as representing various aspects of the crucifixion.

Enthusiasm flower names.

Passiflora are now understood by many names worldwide. Some of the names listed below still show their spiritual origins.

Blaue passionsblume, calalagranadiglia, çarkıfelek çiçeği, chinola, fior ‘d pasiòn, fiore della passione, fleur de la passion, flor de la passió, flôr di passion, granadilla, grenadilla, grenadilo, guavadilla, isusova kruna (jesus crown), konyal, lilikoi, maracuja, maracujá, maracuyá, markisa, mburucuyá (a town in corrientes province, argentina. The original guaraní name from which all comparable names come from), mburukuja, mučenka, parcha, parchita, pasiflora, pasifloro, passiflora azzurra, passiflore, passiflore bleue, passionaria, passionera, enthusiasm flowers, passionsblomma, and sweet cup! [3]

Description

Passionflower (passiflora incarnata) is a creeping seasonal vine with white, purple-tinged flowers and orange berries that grows to a height of approximately 30 ft (9 m). First utilized by native americans and the aztecs of mexico as a sedative, passionflower has actually been a popular folk solution for centuries in europe and north america. Other names for passionflower consist of maypop, granadilla, passion vine, and apricot vine. The herb, which is typically utilized today to reduce stress and anxiety and sleeping disorders, got its curious name from the spanish conquistadors who over-ran mexico and peru in the 16th century. In the flowers of the vine, they saw different signs of the passion of christ, which in christian tradition refers to the amount of time in between the last dinner and christ’s death. In the spaniard’s fancy analogy, the corona in the center of the flower was thought to look like the crown of thorns worn by jesus throughout the crucifixion. The flower’s tendrils signified whips, the five stamens represented christ’s injuries, the total number of petals represented the 10 faithful apostles (peter and judas did not make the cut), and so on.

While there are over 400 types belonging to the genus passiflora, the variety used for medicinal purposes is called incarnata, which can be translated “embodied.” the plant is gotten mainly from the southern united states, india, and the west indies, though passionflower likewise grows in mexico as well as main and south america. Just the parts of the plant that grow in the air are utilized as a drug, in fresh and dried kind.

Some investigations of passionflower have been carried out in people; in addition, animal and other studies recommend that the herb has sedative, anxiolytic, and antispasmodic homes. The german commission e, considered an authoritative source of information on alternative solutions, reported that passionflower appears to lower restlessness in animals. In a 1988 study including rats that was released in a german journal of pharmacology, passionflower was revealed to lengthen sleep, decrease motor activity, and protect the rodents from convulsions. Regardless of findings such as these, scientists have been not able to determine the herb’s active ingredients. Attention has focused on flavonoids (medical passionflower consists of up to 2.5% of these chemicals); maltol; and harmala alkaloids such as harman, harmine,.

Harmaline, and harmalol. (the germans attempted to utilize harmine as a truth serum throughout world war ii because of the chemical’s reputation for inducing a euphoria-like state.) Some researchers speculate that it is the interaction, or synergy, of several chemicals in passionflower that is responsible for the herb’s therapeutic effects. [4]

Ecology

Passionflower (passiflora incarnate) is a deciduous vine native to the majority of the eastern u.s. And a couple of states west of the mississippi river. It is often discovered routing along the ground or going up neighboring plant life in warm locations. The passionflower is the state wildflower of tennessee.

In kentucky, passionflower blooms from might through august. The purple and white flowers have a tropical look and look absolutely nothing like the flowers of any other native plant. Bumble bees and butterflies are highly attracted to the distinct flowers. Passionflower is also a host plant for several species of butterfly and moth caterpillars.

The fertilized flowers will grow into tough, green, egg-shaped fruit, around the size of kiwis. The within the fruit has lots of pulp and is very seedy. Another typical name for passionflower is maypop apparently because the ripe fruit “may pop” when you step on it. A range of wildlife, consisting of some songbirds, will eat the ripe fruit or pull it apart to get at the seeds. In parts of the nation, passionflower is likewise called a wild apricot and the ripe fruits are harvested to be eaten raw or developed into jelly. As the fruit ages, it turns a yellowish brown.

Passionflower can be grown in garden settings and trained to grow up a trellis or along a fence. However, it will spread out by suckers and can become aggressive, specifically in good garden soil, so believe thoroughly about where you wish to plant it. As soon as passionflower ends up being established, it is hard to eliminate. Passionflower needs a minimum of 6 hours of complete sun in order to grow and flower well. It will typically bloom in its second or 3rd year. [5]

Utilizes

Decorative

A variety of species of passiflora are cultivated outside their natural range for both their flowers and fruit. Numerous hybrids have been named; hybridizing is presently being done thoroughly for flowers, foliage and fruit. The following hybrids and cultivars have actually gained the royal horticultural society’s award of garden benefit:.

  • ‘ Amethyst’
  • × exoniensis (exeter passion flower)
  • × violacea

Throughout the victorian period the flower (which in all however a couple of types lasts only one day) was popular, and numerous hybrids were produced utilizing the winged-stem enthusiasm flower (p. Alata), the blue passion flower (p. Caerulea) and other tropical types.

Many cool-growing passiflora from the andes mountains can be grown successfully for their lovely flowers and fruit in cooler mediterranean environments, such as the monterey bay and san francisco in california and along the western coast of the u.s. Into canada. One blue enthusiasm flower or hybrid even grew to plus size at malmö central station in sweden.

Enthusiasm flowers have been a subject of research studies examining extranuclear inheritance; paternal inheritance of chloroplast dna has been documented in this genus.the plastome of the two-flowered enthusiasm flower (p. Biflora) has been sequenced.

Fruit

Most species have round or elongated edible fruit from 50 to 200 millimetres (2 to 8 inches) long and 25– 50 mm (1– 2 in) throughout, depending upon the types or cultivar.

The passion fruit or maracujá (p. Edulis) is cultivated thoroughly in the caribbean, south america, south florida and south africa for its fruit, which is utilized as a source of juice. A little pink fruit that wrinkles quickly and a bigger glossy yellow to orange fruit are traded under this name. The latter is usually thought about simply a variety of flavicarpa, but seems to be more unique in fact.

Sweet granadilla (p. Ligularis) is another widely grown types. In large parts of africa and australia it is the plant called “passionfruit”: confusingly, in south african english the latter species is regularly called granadilla (without an adjective). Its fruit is somewhat intermediate in between the two offered as p. Edulis.

Maypop (p. Incarnata), a typical types in the southeastern us. This is a subtropical representative of this mainly tropical family. However, unlike the more tropical cousins, this particular types is sturdy enough to stand up to the cold down to − 20 ° c (− 4 ° f) prior to its roots pass away (it is native as far north as pennsylvania and has actually been cultivated as far north as boston and chicago.) The fruit is sweet, yellowish, and approximately the size of a chicken’s egg; it delights in some popularity as a native plant with edible fruit and few pests.

Huge granadilla (huge tumbo or badea, p. Quadrangularis), water lemon (p. Laurifolia) and sweet calabash (p. Maliformis) are passiflora types in your area famed for their fruit, but not well-known somewhere else yet.

Wild maracuja are the fruit of p. Foetida, which are popular in southeast asia.

Banana passionfruits are the very lengthened fruits of p. Tripartita var. Mollissima and p. Tarminiana. These are locally consumed, however their intrusive residential or commercial properties make them a bad option to grow beyond their native variety.

Ayahuasca analog

A native source of beta-carbolines (e.g., passion flower in north america) is combined with desmanthus illinoensis (illinois bundleflower) root bark to produce a hallucinogenic drink called prairiehuasca, which is an analog of the shamanic brew ayahuasca.

Standard medicine and dietary supplement

Incarnata (maypop) leaves and roots have a long history of use as a traditional medication by native americans in the United States and Canada and were adjusted by european colonists. The fresh or dried leaves of maypop are used to make a tea that is used as a sedative. Passionflower as dried powder or an extract is used as a dietary supplement. There is insufficient clinical evidence for utilizing passionflower to deal with any medical condition.

Passionflower is classified as generally recognized as safe (gras) for usage as a food component in the united states. [6]

Passion fruit nutrition truths

One cup of enthusiasm fruit (236g) offers 229 calories, 5.2 g protein, 55.2 g of carbs, and 1.7 g of fat. Enthusiasm fruit is a great source of vitamins a and c, iron, magnesium, and potassium. The following nutrition information is supplied by the usda for purple enthusiasm fruit.

Carbohydrates

Enthusiasm fruit gets a bulk of its calories from carbohydrates. There are about 55 grams total per cup, with about half of those from fiber (practically 100% of the everyday worth) and the other half from natural sugars.

Fiber assists decrease the blood sugar level impact of enthusiasm fruit. In fact, it is on the lower side of the glycemic index, with a rating of somewhere between 4.5 and 27.5. The glycemic load of passion fruit (which considers serving size) is also low, in between 0.8 and 5.2.

Fats

Passion fruit is low in fat. Even a large, one-cup portion has under 2 grams total.

Protein

A cup of passion fruit has 5.2 grams of protein. That makes it one of the few fruits that provide a healthy dosage of this macronutrient.

Minerals and vitamins

Enthusiasm fruit is high in Vitamin a, Vitamin c, iron, magnesium, and potassium. It also provides smaller amounts of other nutrients, consisting of phosphorus, choline, calcium, magnesium, folate, niacin, and vitamin k.

Calories

You will consume roughly 229 calories in a one-cup serving of passion fruit. For comparison, one cup of kiwi includes 110 calories3 and the very same amount of pineapple uses 82.5 calories.

Summary

Enthusiasm fruit is greater in calories than lots of other fruits, however it is likewise a good source of fiber and protein. You likewise get a healthy dose of vitamin c, Vitamin a, iron, magnesium, and potassium when you consume this fruit. [7]

How does it work?

Enthusiasm flower includes large amounts of gaba.

gaba is an inhibitory neurotransmitter and its receptors are distributed throughout the brain, primarily in the basal ganglia and the cortex. gaba is accountable for soothing excitatory action in the brain by buffering the neurotransmitter glutamate. When found in appropriate levels in the brain, gaba has muscle relaxant impacts.

gaba likewise lowers hyperexcitability in the brain cells. This is directly associated with the action of passion flower, because this excitability is accountable for such things as muscle cramps, seizures, anxiety, insomnia and other psychiatric conditions.

Passion flower likewise contains lots of other active constituents consisting of flavonoids, harmala alkaloids, maltol, lycopene, and certain flavonoid glycoside components. In addition to the gaba, these flavonoid glycoside components are credited with the sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic results. [8]

Advantages of enthusiasm flower

May help in reducing the impacts of menopause, including hot flashes and anxiety

Menopause is related to sensation of anxiety and anxiety, which is often brought on by low levels of amma-aminobutyric acid (gaba), which is a chemical in the brain. Hormone therapy that depends on contemporary medicine can create a great deal of undesirable side effects. Studies have been performed that show that passion flower can deal with menopausal symptoms such as vasomotor signs (hot flashes and night sweats), insomnia, depression, anger, headaches, and may be a fantastic alternative to standard hormonal agent treatment.

Women are looking for natural remedies a growing number of, and passion flower might assist by increasing the levels of gaba. When the levels of gaba are increased, it assists to reduce the activity of a few of those depression-inducing brain cells. The alkaloids in passion flower may prevent the production of monoamine oxidase, which is precisely what anti-depressant medication attempts to do. Studies have revealed that it can may decrease depression, a common issue for ladies in menopause.

Another research study revealed that passion flower might minimize those bothersome hot flashes! The research study carried out utilized numerous herbal treatments, and the outcomes revealed that anise, licorice, black cohosh, red clover, evening primrose, flaxseed, st. John’s wort, valerian and enthusiasm flower may reduce hot flashes in those that are menopausal as well as those that are premenopausal.

Lower high blood pressure

The journal of nutritional biochemistry conducted a research study dosing with 50 milligrams per kilogram of body weight utilizing passion flower skin extract. The study found that high blood pressure levels were substantially reduced, likely due to the gaba-promoting residential or commercial properties of the extract.

Additional research studies that have actually been published suggesting enthusiasm flower fruit pulp as a solution for decreasing systolic high blood pressure by administering 8 milligrams of enthusiasm flower for a period of 5 days. The outcomes suggested that enthusiasm flower extract increased levels of an antioxidant enzyme and reduced levels of oxidized lipids that can trigger damage from the accumulation of toxic substances and waste products in the body.

Lower anxiety

Passion flower might be practical in decreasing anxiety and has actually long been called a folk remedy. It’s believed that specific compounds discovered in enthusiasm flower might interact with some receptors in the brain provoking relaxation. Due to the fact that enthusiasm increases gaba, the activity of some brain cells that might be causing anxiety is reduced and makes you feel more unwinded. Research studies recommend that passion flower extracts might even have moderate anti-inflammatory and anti-seizure advantages.

A research study was carried out for four weeks on 36 out-patients that were diagnosed with generalized stress and anxiety disorder (gad). The results suggested that enthusiasm flower extract was an efficient treatment for managing the stress and anxiety and did not negatively affect task efficiency unlike the artificial treatment.

Another research study involving children revealed that uneasiness was lowered after making use of the combined plant extracts to include enthusiasm flower, st. John’s wort and valerian root.

Addresses adhd signs

Adhd (attention deficit disorder) seems to be an ongoing concern for lots of parents, and unfortunately, conventional drugs such as adderall can cause numerous undesirable side effects. Adhd is a condition of the brain which manifests in signs such as negligence, hyperactivity and impulsivity that hinder a child’s advancement or everyday activities.

The good news is that a survey revealed parents opting for alternative adhd treatments increasingly more, with nutritional therapies being at the top of the treatment list. Herbs such as roman chamomile, valerian, lemon balm and passion flower have actually been noted as possible treatments, though it’s constantly important to consult your doctor first since some might trigger allergies. Tests were conducted using the conner’s parent ratings to see if essential oils could be effective. The outcomes suggest that adhd symptoms did enhance after the use of essential oils.

Helps in reducing insulin levels

A research study was carried out utilizing yellow enthusiasm fruit peel flour to see how it affected blood sugar level levels.

Insulin sensitivity was examined in an effort to better understand insulin resistance in diabetics. To conduct the studies, 43 volunteers with type 2 diabetes (28 females and 15 males) were asked to take a particular quantity of yellow passion fruit peel flour for a period of 2 months. The results showed a decreased insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients, which recommends that passion flower might benefit diabetic clients.

Enhances your sleep

Sleep is one of the most essential things you can do for your body, and all of us enjoy a good night’s sleep! Studies were performed of clients who had issues sleeping. The study, concentrating on clients with bipolar affective disorder, tested numerous natural herbal medications to consist of passion flower, and the outcomes revealed an enhancement in sleep, possibly by decreasing stress and anxiety.

A double-blinded, placebo-controlled study involved patients needed to consume passion flower tea for week. Individuals showed statistically considerable sleep enhancement. Enthusiasm flower, integrated with valerian root, may be among the best mixes to aid with sleeping disorders and could be ideal, if you seem to have trouble turning off the brain at night, by soothing the cells within it.

Lowers inflammation

Passion flower might minimize disease-causing inflammation. Analysis were performed of the phytonutrient and antioxidant contents of the wild enthusiasm fruit types, specifically p. Tenuifila, and p. Setacea. The scientists paid most attention to the seeds and the explants from seedlings in addition to the adult version. The high level of phenolic compounds showed the effective antioxidant activity of the extract of the passion flower plant.

Another study was performed on paw edema, which is the accumulation of fluid in the paw area of animals. When utilizing dried enthusiasm flower, the antioxidant activity decreased the fluid buildup; therefore, showing the decrease of swelling. [9]

What is passionflower extract great for?

Along the way, individuals have actually also started to uncover how topical use of passionflower extract can also benefit the skin, helping to moisturize, secure, and calm swelling.

Completely moisturizing– without obstructing pores

Passionflower extract is rich in fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid, which is an omega-6 fatty acid that’s vital to our whole body’s functions. We get the majority of linoleic acid through diet, but it’s likewise rather useful when applied topically. This component becomes part of the reason passionflower extract feels soft on the skin, never greasy. linoleic acid also helps repair and keep the skin’s natural barrier, which is how we keep moisture from leaving.

Soothing homes

There are some significant anti-inflammatory substances in passionflower extract, consisting of linoleic acid, Vitamin a (in the form of lycopene), and Vitamin c. Swelling frequently can be found in the kind of acne and redness in skin, so these hero active ingredients use a welcome relief to a variety of skin problem.

Protecting skin

Passionflower contains lots of anti-oxidants, including Vitamin c and lycopene, that neutralize the destructive totally free radicals that originate from the ultraviolet rays and contamination. In other words, they secure skin cells and their dna from the aging effects of the sun. [10]

How to use passion flower to relax your skin?

You can hang out and money attempting the ideal enthusiasm flower skin item. However if you’re more of a do it yourself type, you can give my five favorite methods you can utilize passion flower in the house to get all those beneficial charm advantages a try.

Passion flower salt scrub

The most basic method to experience the aroma and pleasure of enthusiasm flower is in a scrub. Scrubs are incredibly easy and economical to make, plus they have a long lengthy service life compared to other natural dishes. Personally, i choose salt over sugar, but you can use the base exfoliant of your skin’s desire.

Construct your scrub in a glass bowl by including 6 ounces of your exfoliate of option. Add a half tablespoon of dried, organic enthusiasm flower and stir in 2 and a half ounces of your favored oil. For this circulation boosting scrub, i used calendula oil and a half teaspoon of indian sandalwood oil. Gently stir whatever together, including an as much as a teaspoon of pure water for consistency, and transfer to a sealable container.

Passion flower body wash

You don’t require to utilize a body scrub every day, so you’ll require an enthusiastic cleanser for the remainder of the week. Thankfully, dried enthusiasm flower can make a scrumptious tea for your taste buds and body.

Start this dish by bringing 2 or three cups of water to a boil. Location a tablespoon each of passion flower and natural increased petals or buds in a non reusable tea bag and after that move to a heatproof glass or mug. When your water has concerned a boil, enable it to cool for about 4 minutes.

Add a heaping tablespoon of raw honey into the cup with tea and put six ounces of the just recently boiled water into the cup. Stir in the honey up until it’s completely melted and let cool. When the body wash has cooled, transfer to a sealable container, preferably one with a hassle-free pump top. Add 2 or three drops of geranium essential oil into the container and seal tightly. In my restroom, this body wash will last a minimum of 7 days, however it keeps for a minimum of two weeks when refrigerated.

Passionflower face cream

According to sources, the oil from passion flower is loaded with vitamins a and c which are exceptional additions to your day-to-day moisturizer. Combine enthusiasm flower oil with your preferred homemade lotion dish and use daily on makeup free, tidy skin.

Passion flower face steam

I have a new resolution to steam my skin weekly, and i could not withstand including my new natural good friend, enthusiasm flower. For this steam, i added equivalent parts of matcha green tea leaves and dried enthusiasm flower leaves to a large bowl. After i poured steaming (not boiling) water in the bowl, i hovered over it with a towel for about 15 minutes before cleaning my face and followed up with my brand-new enthusiasm flower face cream. My face felt well hydrated and i definitely felt chill af after 15 minutes of breathing in these scents.

Passion flower hair serum

Hair serums are terrific for bring back harmed hair and promoting growth on any issues locations– for me, that typically indicates my hairline. After all, it’s seen its reasonable share of stresses during detangling and my hat fetish phase. For this serum, i blended equivalent parts prickly pear seed oil and passion fruit oil and put in a tinted sealable container. Then, i added a few drops of lavender for fragrance and soothing my scalp. Up until now, my hair is liking the feel of enthusiasm. [11]

Passionflower tea recipe

This relaxing passionflower tea recipe can be consumed prior to bed to support deep, peaceful sleep. It can likewise be drunk throughout the day to quiet psychological chatter, increase resilience to tension, and lift mood.

Ingredients

  • 1-2 tsp dried passionflower
  • 1 cup water
  • 1 tsp additional herb from the above list (optional– if you’re utilizing valerian root see the notes section for additional instructions)

Guidelines

Location 1-2 teaspoons dried herb in a cup. Pour 8 ounces of boiling water over the herb, cover the cup with a small plate or cover, and enable the infusion to high for 20-30 minutes. Stress out the herbs and consume 4 oz. Approximately four times each day.

Notes

To brew passionflower with valerian root: bring 1 1/3 cups water to a light simmer (not a boil) and include 1 teaspoon valerian root. Cover and simmer on low for 20-40 minutes, then remove from heat. Add the.

Passionflower, cover, and enable to high for an additional 20-30 minutes, pressure out the herbs, then serve. [12]

Possible side effects

Negative effects have actually been hardly ever reported for enthusiasm flower however might include nausea, throwing up, drowsiness, rapid heartbeat, and psychological slowing down. When taking passion flower, make certain you don’t drive or run heavy machinery until you understand how it affects you.

In general, passion flower is thought about safe and nontoxic. The u.s. Fda (fda), however, does not regulate the production of herbs and supplements. Many herbs and supplements are not completely evaluated, and there is no warranty relating to the ingredients or security of the items. [13]

What is the dosage for oral enthusiasm flower (passiflora incarnata)?

Children ought to not be provided enthusiasm flower without a doctor’s supervision and dosage change.

Adults

Anxiety conditions

  • Liquid extract: take 45 visit mouth daily.
  • Tablet: use up 90 mg by mouth daily.

Opiate withdrawal

  • Liquid extract: take 60 visit mouth daily.

General dosing

  • Dried extract: take 0.25 to 2 grams by mouth three times a day.
  • Tea: take 0.25 to 2 grams extract per 150 ml of water, by mouth 2 to 3 times a day and thirty minutes before bedtime.
  • Liquid extract: take 0.5 to 1 ml by mouth 3 times a day.
  • Tincture: take 0.5 to 2 ml by mouth 3 times a day. [14]

Interactions

Sedative medications (cns depressants) interaction ranking:.

Moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

Passionflower might cause sleepiness and sleepiness. Medications that triggers sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking passionflower together with sedative medications may trigger excessive drowsiness.

Some sedative medications include pentobarbital (nembutal), phenobarbital (luminal), secobarbital (seconal), clonazepam (klonopin), lorazepam (ativan), zolpidem (ambien), and others. [15]

Preventative measures

The use of herbs is a time-honored technique to enhancing the body and dealing with illness. Herbs, however, can trigger side effects and can engage with other herbs, supplements, or medications. For these factors, you should take herbs with care, under the guidance of a healthcare company.

Do not take passionflower if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

For others, passionflower is typically thought about to be safe and nontoxic in suggested dosages and for less than 2 months at a time. [16]

Conclusion

  • Native to main and south america, passionflower has actually been utilized for centuries as a sedative and antidepressant.
  • Thanks to its unique ingredients, the passion flower has a soothing impact and relieves stress, spasms and anxiety and can assist with inner uneasyness, sleep disorders and states of stress and anxiety and stress.
  • The medical plant acts rapidly against tension, stress and anxiety and can thus enhance sleep by assisting in falling asleep and promoting sleeping through the night.
  • As a dietary supplement or homeopathic treatment, the extracts of the enthusiasm flower herb are processed in capsules, powders, tablets or dragees and utilized in a range of ways. [17]

Recommendations

  1. Https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/passionflower
  2. Https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-871/passionflower
  3. Https://www.passionflow.co.uk/passion-flower-history/
  4. Https://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/plants/plants/passionflower
  5. Https://www.backyardecology.net/passionflower/
  6. Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/passiflora#uses
  7. Https://www.verywellfit.com/passion-fruit-nutrition-facts-4173991#toc-passion-fruit-nutrition-facts
  8. Https://aceva.com/blogs/education/passion-flower-benefits
  9. Https://draxe.com/nutrition/passion-flower/#benefits_of_passion_flower
  10. Https://www.ghostdemocracy.com/blogs/ingredients/passionflower-extract
  11. Https://www.bustle.com/articles/191508-5-passion-flower-beauty-recipes-that-will-calm-your-skin-hair-photos
  12. Https://mommypotamus.com/passionflower-tea-recipe/
  13. Https://www.verywellmind.com/how-is-passion-flower-used-to-treat-anxiety-3024970
  14. Https://www.medicinenet.com/passion_flower_passiflora_incarnata-oral/article.htm#
  15. Https://www.rxlist.com/passion_flower/supplements.htm#interactions
  16. Https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/herb/passionflower
  17. Https://smartsleep.com/blogs/schlafmagazin/passionsblume#fazit
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