Nori Algae

A dried laver seaweed pressed into thin sheets and used especially as a spices or as a wrapper for sushi. [1]


The word nori is utilized in the japanese language, to refer to edible ranges of the red seaweed species porphyra. The porphyra yezoensis and the porphyra. Tenera are the primary species in this group. Although other varieties of seaweed are consisted of such as some cyanobacteria.

The term nori is also related, to food made from these marine plants. They are prepared by chopping the seaweed in traces and dehydrating them with a process similar to that utilized on paper.

Therefore, the item resulting from the nori seaweeds, is routinely used to roll both, the sushi and the onigiri. The nori is also consumed in the form of pasta, experienced with a soy sauce called noritsukudani.

Nori seaweed are likewise used in dry and powder kind, which is called aonori. This presentation performs the function of spice, in common meals such as okonomiyaki or yakisoba. [2]


Originally, the term nori was generic and described seaweeds, including hijiki. Among the oldest descriptions of nori is dated to around the 8th century. In the taihō code enacted in 701, nori was already consisted of in the form of taxation. Local people have actually been referred to as drying nori in hitachi province fudoki (721– 721), and harvesting of nori was discussed in izumo province fudoki (713– 733), revealing that nori was used as food from ancient times. In utsubo monogatari, composed around 987, nori was acknowledged as a typical food. Nori had been taken in as paste form until the sheet kind was created in asakusa, edo (modern tokyo), around 1750 in the edo period through the approach of japanese paper-making.

The word “nori” initially appeared in an english-language publication in c. P. Thunberg’s trav., released in 1796. It was used in conjugation as “awa nori”, probably referring to what is now called aonori.

The japanese nori market was in decrease after wwii, when japan was in need of all food that could be produced. The decrease was because of an absence of understanding of nori’s three-stage life process, such that local people did not understand why standard growing techniques were ineffective. The industry was rescued by knowledge originating from the work of british phycologist kathleen mary drew-baker, who had actually been researching the organism porphyria umbilicalis, which grew in the seas around wales and was gathered for food (bara lafwr or bara lawr), as in japan. Her work was discovered by japanese scientists who applied it to artificial approaches of seeding and growing the nori, rescuing the market. Kathleen baker was hailed as the “mother of the sea” in japan and a statue erected in her memory; she is still revered as the savior of the japanese nori industry.

In the 21st century, the japanese nori market faces a new decrease due to increased competition from seaweed producers in china and korea and domestic sales tax walkings.

The word nori began to be utilized widely in the united states, and the product (imported in dry kind from japan) became widely available at health food stores and asian-american grocery stores in the 1960s due to the macrobiotic movement and in the 1970s with the boost of sushi bars and japanese restaurants. [3]

Nori cultivation

Nori farming in japan and china is essentially the only case of the massive application to mariculture of approaches used in farming and cultivation; the only other similar large-scale operation being laminaria cultivation in china and growing of eucheumoid seaweeds all over the world. It is a case of full-cycle farming, which does not depend at any time on the caprices of nature – a true case of rational exploitation of a natural resource. It is particularly essential to bear in mind that the rearing of the seeding phase- the conchocelis-phase – in the advancement of porphyra is now mostly carried out on shore. More constant results in porphyra production are adequate benefit for the trouble taken, and this process now forms a company structure for the entire market. There is less change in production, leading ultimately to a more stable market and gradually increasing need.

The british scientist dr kathleen drew-baker (left) of the university of manchester made the discovery that sparked off the exponential advancement of the nori growing market in japan when she developed that the life history of porphyra umbilicalis involves a shell-borning conchocelis phase.

She is kept in mind by a statue set up by the japanese nori farmers ignoring the sea at kumamoto, and each year she is honoured by a little cermony at the website.

For the japanese and korean nori farmer, success has actually shown up; in the old days the work was cold, sluggish and poorly-paid, today that the industry is extremely mechanised, the work is more comfy, tidy and well-paid. It now attracts the younger employees, whereas other fishery industries in which the work is harder and dirtier, need to deal with an increasing recruitment problems. This is stated to be the primary reason why nori farming partly supplanted oyster farming in japan.

Pollution of inshore waters is one of the best dangers to the future of the nori market, although raft farming might assist significantly in this regard.


About 150 species of porphyra are discovered around the world (algaebase), of which about 20 grow on the coast of japan. Two of these, p. Yezoensis (left) and p. Tenera, are cultivated by the japanese, and the former is said now to form the bulk of the crop. Extensive selective breeding of both species has actually happened in japan resulting in the advancement of 2 vigorously growing cultivars which have been offered the names porphyra yezoensis f. Narawaensis miura and porphyra tenera var. Tamatsuensis miura. Many of the pressures being utilized are really tough to identify and, just recently, the polymerase domino effect limitation piece length polymorphisms (pcr-rflp) have been used to determine which types remains in concern with some success.

The thallus of the erect frond of porphyra types is in the type of a flat, lanceolate or broadly elliptical blade. The leaves are made up entirely of either little rectangle-shaped or rounded cells which are set up in one or, more hardly ever, 2 cell layers. The plants normally mature to 35 cm long in the commercially-used types, seldom to l m; they are dark purple to brownish red. In the wild, porphyra types typically grow attached to rocks or as epiphytes in the intertidal or shallow subtidal and are generally extremely seasonal in their look and growth.


Porphyra yezoensis generally grows on open coasts in locations impacted by cold ocean currents throughout the year whilst the other types that is commonly cultivated in japan, p. Tenera, chooses warmer waters in sheltered, low salinity locations. The transplant of p. Biography of porphyra © m.d. Guiryyezoensis to cultivation locations by nori farmers has mostly displaced p. Tenera from its previous wild habitats. The biography of both types are approximately the same: the blades germinate from conchospores liberated by the conchocelis-phase from september to november (short days, reasonably low temperature levels) and look like germlings 1 mm in length from mid- to late october, when the water temperature drops to 22 ° c. The germlings grow rapidly and form blades 15-20 cm or more long by mid- to late november and grow during the winter season at temperature levels of 3-8 ° c. In april, the leaves start to decay and have disappeared by might, when the water temperature rises to 14 ° c. After fertilization, zygotospores are produced and these are used to grow brand-new conchocelis-phase plants for the next season.

Nori reproduction

Anori zygotosporest the end of the growing season (late february to early april) high quality, sporulating porphyra plants are selected from the internet. Zygotospores (diploid spores formed by the female gametangial plant; above) are launched into a 20-litre container and a suspension is then sprayed onto tidy oyster shells utilizing a watering can. About 1 kg of ripe porphyra is essential to seed about 20,000 shells.

The zygotospores (right, under microscopic lense) sprout best in water of 10-15 ° c to form unbranched filaments that permeate into the shells. Tiny examination is carried out and if adequate spores have permeated the shells, they are then suitable for the next stage.

Conchocelis stage growing in shells

It has actually been discovered that the best advancement of the sporophyte phase happens when the shells are suspended from ropes (below) rather than lying on the bottom of the tanks (left). Two holes are typically drilled in each shell to make strings of 15 shells, with the pointers touching. This is typically performed at prefectorial (japan is divided into city government locations called prefectures) seedling centres, which are government-sponsored and run. The shells are grown inside in tanks 2 x 3 x 0.7 m deep in which 16 bamboo sticks are put lengthways, simply above the water level, and about 35 strings of shells are hung looped over the sticks. The rooms in which the tanks are positioned have windows in the roofing system and walls, which are supplied with curtains to control the light strength.

Nori seedling centre in japan

A prefectorial seedling centre (above) usually has 24 tanks, offering an overall center for raising about 200,000 shells. The tanks are not aerated but water temperature and light strength are carefully managed (above). A rise in water temperature level in early summer is desirable and need to not drop below 23 ° c prematurely as this stimulates premature spore formation.

Shells with conchocelis developments

Photon irradiance ought to be maintained at about 500 lux (about 10 µmol photons per meter squared per second). Generally, there is no requirement to alter the seawater in the tanks throughout the summertime season, however if water quality deteriorates then it is renewed. The shells and the water typically consist of sufficient nutrients to feed the conchocelis-phase however percentages of n and p may be added to stimulate the development of the alga. The shells are kept about 5 months in indoor tanks and the conchocelis- stage plants soon become apparent as greyish-purple spots.

Seeding nets

At the seedling centres (above), internet of artificial fibres 2-3 mm in size and 18.3 m long x 1.5 m broad with a mesh size of 15 cm square (unstretched) are used for seeding. The most common seeding mechanism used at present is to place the nets on drums 1.5 m in size and 2 m across driven by an electrical motor at 2 transformations per minutes. These are dipped into concrete tanks about 7 x 6 x 0.5 m deep to a depth of 0.25 m. About 30 webs are wound around the drums at a time and sporulating conchocelis- stage shells are placed, still attached in strings, on the bottom of the tanks. The rotation of the drums keeps the water adequately turbulent to stop the conchospores from choosing the flooring of the tank. It takes about 20-60 minutes to seed the internet in this way. The fibres of the nets are examined microscopically to guarantee that an enough number of spores have settled. One seedling centre may seed approximately 20,000 internet in one season. It takes about 10 shells properly to seed one internet.

Net storage

Up until reasonably just recently, the seeded internet were positioned in the sea as quickly as possible, however over the last few years different methods of storage have actually been developed as this allows the farmers to extend the growing season by using two succeeding sets of nets on each rack. For short-term storage, internet are kept in concrete basins in seawater however in the longer term, cold storage is required. Offered the nets are folded and covered with polyethylene sheets to keep them moist they can be stored in cold storage for numerous weeks.

Freezing nori webs in japan

Young nori plants can also be kept at -20 ° c if they are first air-dried to 20-30% wetness (top). They can be kept for more than 6 months utilizing this approach, which has the added advantage that contaminants such as diatoms are eliminated.

Nori rack design and location

Racks are constructed before bringing the webs to the seedling centres. Well-sheltered websites are selected, preferabley with present speeds of about 30 cm per second at full tide. The racks include 2 rows, each of nine long bamboo poles which are driven into the sea bed using a power pump and a rubber hose, which requires water at pressure through a nozzle. The poles are positioned so that a stretched net fits exactly in between them. Generally, four or 5 such rows are positioned next to each other so that the majority of the poles serve two webs. For 5 nets only 54 poles are thus needed.

Placing poles for nori cultivation in japan

On ground that is unsuitable for rack structure, drifting rafts are utilized, but nori plants require to be exposed to the air from time to time, particularly during the first 3 weeks of being taken into the sea. Drifting frames, 18 m long, made of plastic tubing are utilized for this function. Approximately 20 internet can be attached to a single frame. Having been brought to the website, the frame is slotted into the raft in such a way that the.

Webs are exposed to the air for at least 2 h every day. Rafts might be constructed of a light bamboo structure which enables the internet to be connected straight to the frame. Styrofoam floats are positioned under the structure when it is required to raise the plants out of the water. Nylon frames, anchored to the seabed at the corners, are likewise used and supported by drifts, however a plastic subframe has to be used to raise the internet out of the water when necessary.

Nori development

In the first month the leaves grow gradually however, once they reach about 1 cm long, growth to 10-15 cm can take place in a tidal cycle of 15 days. About 50 days after seeding the nets the leaves are 15-20 cm long. Throughout this period the plants are particularly vulnerable to illness and aspects such as water temperature and salinity need to be thoroughly considered and the nets should be lowered and raised to fit in with the tidal cycle.

Farming dangers

The selection of a website for nori farming is of essential significance. Where there is inadequate shelter, the pacific browse may trigger a lot of damage, especially when the fronds are fully-grown. Some rain is an advantage, since it brings nutrients by means of run-off but low salinities can be unhealthy as this minimizes the plants’ resistance to disease.

Usually, there would not seem to be any serious problem from herbivores however fouling types such as the green algae enteromorpha and ulva and particular diatoms can be frustrating. These can be controlled to a degree by careful control of the levels of the webs but care has to be taken to avoid drying out the nori totally.

About 10 various illness assault the nori plants consisting of bacteria, viruses and fungis. The usual treatment for these diseases is to pick a level for the nets that optimises the resistance of the plants but is not beneficial to the survival of the pathogen. Because growth is faster at depth, the farmers are inclined to lower the webs, but they know that illness will strike more readily if this is done. Cross-breeding of pressures to find resistant types may show effective in the future. If disease is observed in the crop, excellent care needs to be taken in cleaning and drying of the webs or a tank of infection could be built up.

Nori processing

Nori is not sold in the fresh state however is right away dried into sheets. This was previously performed by a laborious sun-drying procedure, but the job is now extremely mechanised. The harvesters just take what they can process in one day. The nori is first washed with freshwater then fed into a shredding device which lowers it to pieces 0.5 x 1 cm in size. The cut nori is then thoroughly blended with freshwater, 4 kg of nori per 100 litres. Packing nori sheets in japanthis nori/water mix is then fed into a machine which rather looks like a paper-making machine; it is metered automatically on to wood frames about 30 cm square on the outside, into which fits mats of split bamboo 20 x 18 cm in size, and positioned over a wire netting screen. About 600 ml of the mixture is fed into each frame and the water recedes through the mats and the screen. The frames then move slowly along a production line and finally over a heated surface area. The nori and the bamboo mats are then gotten rid of and the frames return in a circle for more nori-water mix. The nori sheets are then piled up and take into an oven to reduce the moisture content to about 18%. In order to obtain a good-quality product, the temperature level of the drying procedure needs to not go beyond 50 ° c. The bamboo mats are then removed, the nori is created in 10s and.

Packed in packages of 100s. They are then delivered to a co-operative shipping point. Here they are thoroughly packed and sealed in cellophane so that moisture uptake will not reduce their quality, and shipped to all parts of japan. The overall japanese output is about 7 billion sheets. Korean production is 60-100 million sheets. [4]

Nutrition of nori (seaweed laver)

Below you will find the nutrition details for a 3.5 oz (100g) of grilled nori:.

Great vs bad nori: how to choose the very best or excellent nori for sushi?

The best nori sheet would be jet black with a glossy sheen, uniform thickness across the surface area, and practically no hole.

Good quality nori when tasted will have umami taste– the natural sweet taste that we enjoy in a subtle way with no odd or fishy smell. It needs to not consist of any off-flavors or weirdness that mixes from other sort of seaweed. Good nori should be crisp at first hint then follow with softness and sweet that melt in your mouth.

Low-quality nori, on the other hand, is unappetizing or in some cases has that mix of tastes, often due to mixing with other seaweed. The quality is questionable because it is typically dry, simple to break when rolling, and kinda chewy/ tough to bite. This low-grade nori is frequently can be discovered by its color, being brown or lighter green. When raising it over the light instructions, if it has great deals of irregular thickness, needle holes, etc. that certainly a poorer one.

So when purchasing nori, if you simply just want sushi at a budget price, you can pick any nori that from a great source i.e safe to consume. Otherwise, besides looking at the label (grade, price, brand, and stuff), take a closer look at the color, spot holes, surface area cover …

And remember, though nori shelf life is pretty long, the fresher it is the much better the taste. Even the very best nori will be breaking down through time if neglected too long or soaking up moisture. Re-roasting is a method to make these nori sheets crisp once again. Still, seal leftover/unused sheets in tight zip-lock or airtight container with a desiccant bag for conservation. [6]

Proven health advantages of nori seaweed

Nori is likewise called the superfood, and here are some reasons! It’s said to be a food consisting of various nutrients, some of which can quickly be discovered in the human blood.

Nori elevates the functionality of the brain:

Nori is a great food alternative to promote healthy performance in the brain. This is since it consists of omega-3 fatty acids. It assists develop the nerve system and supports the brain.

Nori seaweed promotes bone health:

To have excellent bone health, a lot of people wind up consuming dairy items, particularly milk. But did you understand that nori seaweed is a healthy alternative and supplies a great calcium concentration? Consuming it in a reasonable amount of nori will strengthen your bones and likewise your teeth. Try consuming this if you are vegan, too, because it’s a healthy alternative.

Nori is an anti-inflammatory agent:

In recent times and conditions, different humans have been exposed to multiple toxic substances and toxins. Nori is very healthy and offers maximum benefits most naturally. It serves as an anti-inflammatory agent because of the minerals and vitamins present inside it. These work in assistance of maintaining health and promotes the body immune system keeping you protected.

Nori keeps the function of the thyroid:

Nori includes a good amount of iodine and helps in maintaining thyroid function. The thyroid is a crucial part of our body and manages primary functions that assist supply energy. It also elevates the metabolism system. Nori can be consumed in a manner to make the thyroid healthy.

Nori promotes performance of muscles:

Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and favorably effect the body. The amino acids present inside nori are alanine, lysine, arginine, and others that are necessary in keeping muscle strength. It also assists in making muscle function much better, helps burn fat, and decreases tiredness.

Nori is anti-cancer:

Nori has various anti-cancer homes that are responsible for decreasing the threat of cancer in bodies. Multiple research studies that you can stop roughly 95% cell growth if nori is taken in. Nori has anti-mutagenic effects that play a considerable function in the metabolism, and the existence of vitamins c assists to reduce the effects of the effect of these free radicals. Are you health conscious? Then begin consuming nori to prevent any signs of cancer.

Nori offers us with antioxidants:

Consuming sources that are rich in anti-oxidants keep the body healthy. Where spinach is also an excellent and healthy option, nori can also be taken in frequently to prevent other diseases and strengthen the body with antioxidants. It’s anti-allergic, too, which is an included advantage.

Nori assists reduce weight:

Most people choose a vegan diet to cut down their weight and promote healthy living. That’s exactly what you can accomplish by taking in nori; with a healthy diet and an excellent working out routine, you can easily climb up the healthy ladder. Nori is low in calories and fat, supplying the body with healthy nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, reinforcing the body while dieting. Nori can also be consumed as a day-to-day snack. [7]

How to make tuna nori covers without the rice

The trick to make the covers work without the rice is to pick a minimum of one product that has a sticky texture so that your food will not fall out of the wraps quickly.

  1. Take 2 sheets of nori wraps and gently fold them two times to make 4 squares.
  2. Cut a slit to the middle of the nori sheets.
  3. Include the food, starting from the bottom left corner and clockwise, with avocado, cucumber, canned tuna, and boiled eggs.
  4. Thoroughly lift the bottom left corner to fold the avocado over the cucumber and press carefully to help them adhere.
  5. Keep folding– tuna and eggs– until you get one square wrap.
  6. Enjoy them right now!

Tips for the most delicious nori covers!

  • Enjoy them right now! Don’t wait. Nori wraps taste the best when they are fresh and crisp.
  • You can use any type of protein or vegetables you desire however keep them as thin and flat as possible so it’s simpler to fold.
  • Select at least one item that has a little sticky texture so your covers are less likely to break down. There’s a factor sushi uses rice (i.e. Rice helps ingredients to stick) so if you go the low carbohydrate route, think of something else (e.g. Avocado, sandwich cheese, etc) [8]

Nori chips


  • 1 sheet nori (dried seaweed), cut into thin strips
  • 1 teaspoon olive oil, or as required
  • Salt to taste


  1. Preheat oven to 300 degrees f (150 degrees c). Lightly oil a baking sheet.
  2. Set up nori smooth-side down on the prepared baking sheet. Lightly brush olive oil over nori; season with salt.
  3. Bake in the preheated oven till nori is dry and crispy, 3 to 4 minutes. [9]

Recipes utilizing nori

In addition to the dishes that are on this site, thanks to the bloggers who took part in this roundup for permission to link to their nori dishes and share their images.

Nori rice bowl with tofu, cucumber, avocado

Basic nori rice bowl with tofu, cucumber, and avocado: simple nori rice bowls are discreetly infused with the yummy sea vegetable. Decorated with crispy tofu, cucumber, and avocado, it’s like vegetable sushi deconstructed.

Deconstructed sushi bowl – vegan sushi salad

Vegetable sushi salad (aka deconstructed sushi bowl: here’s a fun and affordable way to take pleasure in the flavors of vegetable sushi but not the mess of making it– a tasty sushi salad bowl featuring rice, avocado, carrots, nori, and ginger.

This website’s post on gomasio and furikake, 2 standard japanese flavorings gives instructions on how to make them easily in your home. The latter is based on sea vegetable, and in this case, our leading choice is nori.

Bagels with vegan carrot lox

Simplest vegan carrot lox: this dish starts with wavy-cut carrots, which are the ideal size, shape, and density to act as a lox alternative. Then they’re marinaded in a salt water that consists of nori for the subtle flavor of the sea.

Chickpea-based vegan tuna

Vegan tuna: from enjoying it vegan, here’s a plant-based tuna salad using chickpeas and subtly flavored with nori. It’s totally delicious and tastes remarkably close to the genuine thing!

Vegan miso soup with nori

Easy miso soup: an easy miso soup recipe that makes a best healthy umami-packed mouthwatering vegan lunch, from happy cooking area rocks. Soothing, yummy, and ready in just 15 minutes.

Vegan crab cakes

Vegan crab cakes: from a virtual vegan, very delicious vegan crab cakes with great texture and a taste of the sea thanks to the addition of collapsed up nori sheets.

Vegan clam-less chowder

Vegan clam chowder: wow, it’s veggie?! This vegan clam chowder is so scrumptious and easy to make with just five ingredients! It is incredibly quickly and best for meal prep for a fast supper when you remain in a rush. Nori includes the taste of the sea.

Vegan fish-less tacos

Best vegan fish tacos: if you’re missing out on fish tacos, no sweat vegan’s blackened fish-free variation will not disappoint. The nori and lime juice offer the tofu an intense seafood taste, while the sweet taste of the salsa and creaminess of the slaw round out each perfect bite.

Deep-fried nori-wrapped tofu

Deep-fried nori-wrapped tofu: biting into deep-fried nori wrapped tofu will make you believe you are consuming a piece of fish, other than these are totally vegan-friendly, from v for veggy.

Nori spinach rolls

Nori spinach rolls: another from v for veggy, alright, this is type of like sushi, however not exactly. Tthis recipe is for tasty little treats with nori and seaweed. These are best for working as an appetiser or side meal. [10]

Adverse effects

Nori is typically considered safe to consume in moderate quantities and supplies an abundance of healthy homes. However, extreme intake of nori may have harmful negative effects. If you experience medical problems or take prescription medications, talk to your medical provider regarding your dietary requirements.

High sodium content

According to the medlineplus, sodium is need by the body for proper performance of nerves and muscles and to keep a healthy blood pressure. The 2015-2020 dietary guidelines for americans recommends 2,300 milligrams of sodium every day; nevertheless, typical american adults consume 3,400 milligrams of sodium daily, putting them at risk for health problems.

One complete sheet of roasted nori consists of 3 milligrams of sodium. While this amount might appear irrelevant, some flavored nori sheets consist of additional sodium. When eating in restaurants in a japanese restaurant, consumption of sodium may collect extremely rapidly amongst the nori, soy sauce and included salt for flavoring. Individuals on a low-sodium diet plan must limit their sodium consumption, as excess sodium may lead to health issues such as heart disease, cirrhosis and persistent kidney illness.

Source of dha

Dha, or docosahexaenoic acid, is a kind of omega-3 fatty acid. While is it commonly found in seafood products, such as salmon, mackerel, tuna and sardines, seaweed is a vegetarian source of dha. The office of dietary supplements notes that omega-3 fatty acids like dha promotes proper development of the nervous system and supports brain and vision health. However, ods also reports that dha may likewise communicate with particular blood pressure medications.

With specific blood pressure medications. Dha might reduce blood pressure, therefore improving the impacts of prescription high blood pressure medications.

Rich in vitamin k

According to usda fooddata central, seaweed is an abundant in vitamin k. The linus pauling institute states that vitamin k works as an anticoagulant and protects versus arterial blood clotting, consequently allowing blood to flow freely to the heart, lung and brain.

However, excessive quantities of vitamin k may communicate with blood thinning medications, such as warfarin. Vitamin k might make warfarin a less reliable drug and may increase the risk of blood clots and stroke. If you’re taking warfarin, or another blood thinner, speak with your physician about nori and how it can fit into your diet strategy.

Extra health issues

According to a may 2019 review published in nutrition evaluations, seaweed provides heavy metals, such as arsenic. While the quantities in a single sheet of nori might be low, there is the possibility of bioaccumulation in time. The authors of the study also keep in mind there is a possible threat of foodborne illness with routine use of edible seaweed. [11]


Patients taking warfarin and taking in a big quantity of food containing seaweed might experience a modification in worldwide normalized ratio because of seaweed’s high vitamin k content. [12]


Nori (海苔) is a dried edible seaweed utilized in japanese food, made from types of the red algae genus pyropia consisting of p. Yezoensis and p. Tenera. It has a strong and distinct taste, and is often utilized to cover rolls of sushi or onigiri (rice balls). The ended up dried sheets are made by a shredding and rack-drying procedure that resembles papermaking. They are sold in packs in grocery stores for culinary purposes. Since nori sheets easily absorb water from the air and deteriorate, a desiccant is required when storing nori for any substantial time. [13]


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