Nettle

Any of a genus (urtica of the family urticaceae, the nettle household) of chiefly coarse herbs armed with stinging hair legs, which smarted from the stings of nettles. [1]

Summary

Stinging nettle (urtica dioica) is a plant with pointed leaves and white to yellow-colored flowers. The root and above ground parts are utilized for diabetes.

The stinging nettle plant is generally 2-4 meters high. It consists of ingredients that may reduce swelling and increase urination. The leaves are often consumed as a cooked vegetable.

Stinging nettle is most typically used for diabetes and osteoarthritis. It is also often used for urinary tract infections (utis), kidney stones, bigger prostate, hay fever, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific proof to support these uses.

Do not confuse stinging nettle (urtica dioica) with white dead nettle (lamium album). [2]

History of nettle

Nettle usage has been tape-recorded as far back as the bronze age (3000 bce– 1200 bce), and it is still utilized in herbalism today. In between 58 and 45 bce, there are records of nettle’s stinging homes assisting julius caesar’s troops in helping them remain awake and alert throughout the night. Aside from its use in herbal supplements, nettle has actually also been widely utilized as a fabric. Similar to textiles made from flax, nettle can be made into various textures, from smooth to coarse. Nettle fabric likewise has the ability to be dyed or bleached like cotton. It was a common family fabric in scottish homes throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. And during the very first and 2nd world wars, nettle fiber was used as a substitute for cotton yarns, when this product was unavailable. Because of its strong and durable fibers, nettle would be an excellent ally if you were ever stranded in a forest, as it can be utilized to make natural cordage. This natural cordage might then be utilized to help build a shelter, start a fire, fashion clothing, make tools, and more, making it the ideal plant to have around in a survival situation. [3]

Description

This common hedgerow seasonal grows to above 1.5 m and has substantial sneaking rooting stolons. The leaves are pointed with toothed edges. The stem is square in random sample and covered with stinging hairs. The small green male and female flowers are borne in tassels by different plants.

Secret features

Young plant: it has longer and more triangular first true leaves than annual nettle.

Plant: it is high and upright, with leaves larger than those of little nettle. The leaves and stem are covered in stinging hairs.

Lookalikes

Common nettle may be puzzled with little nettle, however it has much shorter cotyledons than small nettle and the very first real leaves of typical nettle are longer and more triangular. [4]

Circulation

Urtica dioica is thought about to be belonging to europe, much of temperate asia and western north africa. It is plentiful in northern europe and much of asia, normally discovered in the countryside. It is less widespread in southern europe and north africa, where it is limited by its requirement for wet soil, however is still common. It has been introduced to many other parts of the world. In north america, it is commonly dispersed in canada and the united states, where it is discovered in every province and state except for hawaii, and also can be found in northern most mexico. It grows in abundance in the pacific northwest, specifically in places where yearly rainfall is high. The european subspecies has actually been presented into australia, north america and south america.

In europe, nettles have a strong association with human habitation and buildings. The presence of nettles might indicate the website of a long-abandoned structure, and can likewise suggest soil fertility. Human and animal waste may be responsible for elevated levels of phosphate and nitrogen in the soil, providing an ideal environment for nettles. [5]

Physiology and phenology

Pollard and briggs (1984b) checked out the structure and function of the stinging hairs of u. Dioica subsp. Dioica. When brushing contact is made with a hair the inflamed idea is broken off obliquely along a more or less fixed fracture line, leaving a sharp point (” resembling the diagonal pointer of a hypodermic needle”). This point permeates the skin and the subsequent pressure squeezes the base of the stinging cell which thus actively injects the contaminant contained within it. Pollard and briggs (1984b) point out that in spite of a good deal of biochemical and medicinal research over the past 100 years, the accurate nature of the contaminant is not fully comprehended, although it is understood to contain serotonin and acetylcholine (connor, 1977).

Dioica is a long-day plant and might require up to 16 hours daylength for flowering (bond et al., 2007). Flowering (in britain) happens from late may to early august and viable seed is shed or may stay on the dead stems till december or january. According to the kew seed information database (2015 ), checked seeds sprouted easily after stratification at 5oc or 6oc for 8 weeks prior to being moved to rotating temperature levels of 25/10oc, 8/16oc, 33/19oc or 12/12oc. The seeds of north american plants of u. Dioica subsp. Gracilis obviously require no vernalization and fresh seed will germinate in 5 to 10 days.

With regard to plant advancement, brand-new rhizomes are produced in late summer season or autumn either from old root material or from the base of aerial shoots (greig-smith, 1948). They continue to grow at or just below the soil surface up until the death of the aerial shoots when they turn upwards to form new shoots. Young roots are reddish in colour and have stinging hairs and scale leaves. Older roots and roots have a yellow corky layer therefore appear yellow in colour. The roots branch a lot and form many fine laterals.

Greig-smith (1948) says that brand-new aerial shoots of u. Dioica continue growth till about 15 cm high and then survive the winter season (in britain), resuming growth the following spring. Blooming begins in late might or june. In canada, according to bassett et al. (1977 ), the north american subspecies is killed back to ground level by frost each year but its rhizomes survive and grow again in spring.

Taylor (2009) mentions work by grime and hunt (1975) in stating that although u. Dioica has a small seed mass its competitive technique includes an extremely high relative development rate, which coincides with high stature, extensive lateral spread and the propensity to accumulate leaf litter, qualities that help with the exclusive profession of fertile sites.

Wheeler (1981 ), mentioned in taylor (2009 ), compared the growth of woodland and pasture clones of u. Dioica subsp. Dioica at different light levels. Plants shaded by deciduous forest grew better in their light routine of 37.3% of direct event light from november to april and of 23.8% from may to october than did pasture clones in 84.3% of direct event light in respect of height, internode length and shoot dry mass. Nevertheless the pasture clones produced 82% more seeds than the woodland ones. When plants were grown in pots at 25%, 35%, 67% and 100% (complete greenhouse light) irradiance, there was no substantial difference between overall dry mass of plants.

Taylor (2009) reported that plants wilted under really dry conditions, however they might have the ability to ‘harden’ to dry spell to some extent. The same author says that the plant can not hold up against flooding of its rhizomes and roots for extended periods. Greig-smith (1948) observed that the shoot suggestions are not impacted by spring frosts however might pass away back after early autumn frosts. U. Dioica does not continue saline locations (bassett et al. (1977 ). [6]

Types

Stinging nettle, or urtica dioica, is a typical plant that grows in the united states, canada, and europe. It mainly grows in wet, fertile soil.

Nevertheless, individuals may describe lots of plants in the urtica family as stinging nettle. These consist of:.

  1. Urtica galeopsifolia: this has no stinging hairs, and individuals frequently refer to it as the stingless nettle.
  2. Urtica gansuensis: this type of nettle has stinging hairs and is local to eastern asia.
  3. Urtica gracilis: individuals might refer to this as the american stinging nettle.
  4. Urtica afghanica: this might have stinging hairs or are hairless, and it is native to central and southwestern asia. [7]

Advantages of nettle

Here are 6 evidence-based benefits of stinging nettle.

Contains many nutrients

Stinging nettle’s leaves and root supply a variety of nutrients, consisting of:.

What’s more, a number of these nutrients function as anti-oxidants inside your body.

Antioxidants are molecules that assist protect your cells against damage from totally free radicals. Damage triggered by totally free radicals is linked to aging, as well as cancer and other harmful diseases.

Studies suggest that stinging nettle extract can raise blood antioxidant levels.

Summary

Stinging nettle offers a variety of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, Amino acids, polyphenols and pigments much of which likewise serve as anti-oxidants inside your body.

May minimize inflammation

Swelling is your body’s way of healing itself and combating infections. However, persistent inflammation can cause considerable damage. Stinging nettle harbors a range of compounds that might lower inflammation.

In animal and test-tube studies, stinging nettle lowered levels of multiple inflammatory hormones by hindering their production.

In human research studies, applying a stinging nettle cream or consuming stinging nettle products appears to ease inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis.

For instance, in one 27-person research study, applying a stinging nettle cream onto arthritis-affected locations considerably reduced pain, compared to a placebo treatment.

In another research study, taking a supplement that contained stinging nettle extract substantially minimized arthritis discomfort. In addition, participants felt they could minimize their dosage of anti-inflammatory pain relievers because of this capsule.

That said, research study is insufficient to advise stinging nettle as an anti-inflammatory treatment. More human studies are needed.

Summary

Stinging nettle might assist reduce swelling, which in turn could help inflammatory.

Conditions, consisting of arthritis, but more research study is needed.

May deal with enlarged prostate signs

Approximately 50% of males aged 51 and older have an enlarged prostate gland.

An enlarged prostate is commonly called benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph). Researchers aren’t sure what triggers bph, but it can cause substantial discomfort throughout urination.

Surprisingly, a couple of studies recommend that stinging nettle may help treat bph.

Animal research study reveals that this effective plant may prevent the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone– a more powerful kind of testosterone.

Stopping this conversion can help in reducing prostate size.

Studies in individuals with bph demonstrate that stinging nettle extracts help treat brief- and long-term urination problems– without side effects.

However, it’s uncertain how reliable stinging nettle is compared to standard treatments.

Summary

Stinging nettle might help reduce prostate size and treat signs of an enlarged prostate gland in men with bph.

May treat hay fever

Hay fever is an allergic reaction that includes swelling in the lining of your nose. Stinging nettle is viewed as a promising natural treatment for hay fever.

Test-tube research study reveals that stinging nettle extracts can hinder inflammation that can activate seasonal allergic reactions.

This includes obstructing histamine receptors and stopping immune cells from launching chemicals that set off allergic reaction signs.

Nevertheless, human studies keep in mind that stinging nettle is equal to or only somewhat better at dealing with hay fever than a placebo.

While this plant may show a promising natural solution for hay fever symptoms, more long-term human studies are required.

Summary

Stinging nettle may reduce hay fever signs. Yet, some research study suggests that it might not be a lot more effective than a placebo. More studies are required on stinging nettle’s effects on hay fever.

May lower blood pressure

Around one in 3 american grownups has hypertension.

Hypertension is a severe health concern because it puts you at risk of heart problem and strokes, which are amongst the leading causes of death worldwide. Stinging nettle was traditionally utilized to deal with high blood pressure. Animal and test-tube research studies show that it may help lower high blood pressure in several ways.

For one, it may promote nitric oxide production, which serves as a vasodilator. Vasodilators unwind the muscles of your capillary, helping them broaden.

In addition, stinging nettle has compounds that may function as calcium channel blockers, which unwind your heart by lowering the force of contractions.

In animal studies, stinging nettle has been shown to lower high blood pressure levels while raising the heart’s antioxidant defenses.

However, stinging nettle’s impacts on blood pressure in humans are still uncertain. Additional human studies are required prior to suggestions can be made.

Summary

Stinging nettle might help lower high blood pressure by allowing your capillary to unwind and decreasing the force of your heart’s contractions. Yet, more human studies are needed to confirm these results.

May aid blood sugar level control

Both human and animal studies link stinging nettle to lower blood glucose levels.

In fact, this plant includes substances that might imitate the impacts of insulin.

In a three-month study in 46 people, taking 500 mg of stinging nettle extract 3 times everyday considerably lowered blood glucose levels compared to a placebo.

Despite appealing findings, there are still far too few human studies on stinging nettle and blood sugar level control. More research study is essential.

Summary

While stinging nettle might assist lower blood glucose levels, more human studies are crucial prior to recommendations can be made.

Other possible benefits

Stinging nettle may use other possible health advantages, consisting of:.

Reduced bleeding: medicines consisting of stinging nettle extract have been discovered to reduce excessive.

Bleeding, especially after surgery.

Liver health: nettle’s antioxidant homes may safeguard your liver versus damage by contaminants, heavy.

Metals and inflammation.

Natural diuretic: this plant might help your body shed excess salt and water, which in turn could lower blood pressure temporarily. Bear in mind that these findings are from animal research studies.

Injury and burn recovery: using stinging nettle creams might support wound healing, including burn wounds.

Summary

Stinging nettle’s other prospective health advantages include decreased bleeding, increased liver health and injury healing. [8]

How to use?

Nettle are terrific as tea, in soup as a fresh veggie like spinach, as a pot herb, as a veggie compliment to meals and while some nutrient material is lost with cooking there is still an excellent level left– don’t over-cook though, as the majority of veggie nutrients are diminished by long cooking durations. The dried product can be added to flour in bread, pasta, and noodle dough as a protein-rich supplement for vegans and vegetarians. In the spring i routinely select an excellent sized handful of fresh tops of nettles and add a pint of boiling water and simply let the leaves stay in the infusion water. Take the drink warm or cold with a slice of lemon and to fizz it up utilize a 1/3 of a glass of the infused water with a sparkling mineral water and either a little lemon juice or a piece of lemon or lime and some ice.

Nettle tea can be purchased in a lot of grocery store and health shops however if you have a fresh source this will be the most delightful and healthful. [9]

How to brew nettle tea?

Merely include water to your gathered nettle leaves and heat to a near boil. Usage about two cups of water for a cup of leaves; there’s no need to measure. You can make the tea more powerful by soaking longer, or weaker by adding more water. Once the water is near boiling, reduce heat and simmer for a couple minutes. Pour through a little strainer and the tea is ready to drink. Some people choose a small bit of sugar added to the tea, but i find the taste is simply great without any ingredients.

The cooked leaves can likewise be eaten with a little bit of butter melted over leading, or they can be added to soups and stews. If you are going to eat the leaves, taste a smidgen first to be sure the sting has left.

A word of care

Any brand-new substance ought to be presented slowly to your body. A cup or 2 of nettle tea per day is sufficient to take pleasure in the benefits which nettles offer. Those brand-new to nettles ought to begin with small amounts.

If you will be bringing kids along while harvesting nettles, which is an excellent knowing experience for them, be sure to take sufficient safety measures to keep them from being stung by the leaves. Long clothing and gloves must be worn at all times when managing nettles. Once they are cooked or brewed into tea, they lose their sting.

So if you’re aiming to shake the winter season blahs and revitalize yourself for spring, a simple restorative elixir might be as close as a nearby weed patch. And considering that nettles grow in the very same area year after year, it only takes one discovery to bring you a prepared supply of nature’s wonder tonic for spring. [10]

Nettle soup

Components

  • 1/2 big shopping bag of fresh nettle tops
  • Salt
  • 1 tablespoon additional virgin olive oil
  • 1 teaspoon butter
  • 1/2 cup chopped shallots
  • 1/2 cup sliced celery
  • 1 pound yukon gold or russet potatoes, peeled and sliced
  • 4 cups chicken stock, homemade or store-bought
  • 1 to 2 cups water
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 1 teaspoon dried thyme (or a couple sprigs of fresh thyme)
  • Freshly ground black pepper
  • 1 1/2 tablespoons lemon juice
  • 2 to 3 tablespoons heavy light whipping cream

Approach

Blanch the nettles:

Bring a big pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Prepare a big bowl of ice water. Using protective gloves, transfer the nettle tops into the boiling water. Blanch for 2 minutes.

Use tongs to lift the wilted blanched nettles out of the pot and transfer to the bowl of ice water to stun them. Stress in a colander.

Cut away and dispose of any big originates from the nettles. (this ought to be much easier to do now that the nettle stingers have lost their sting due to the blanching.).

You ought to have 3 to 4 cups of blanched tender nettle tops and leaves for this dish. Any blanched nettles not used at this moment can be frozen for future usage.

Sauté the shallots and celery:

In a 6-quart soup pot, heat the olive oil and butter on medium heat. Add the chopped shallots and celery and cook until softened, about 5 minutes.

Include the potatoes, stock, bay leaf, and thyme:

Add the sliced potatoes, the chicken stock, bay leaf, and thyme. If using saltless or low sodium stock, add one teaspoon of salt. Give a simmer and simmer for 5 minutes.

Chop the blanched nettles, contribute to the soup pot, and simmer

Roughly slice the blanched nettles. Include 3 to 4 cups of the chopped blanched nettles to the pot. Include enough water to simply cover the nettles and potatoes, 1 to 2 cups. Go back to a simmer and simmer for 15 minutes or until the potatoes are soft and the nettles tender.

Purée the soup:

Eliminate the bay leaves (and thyme sprigs if using) from the pot. Utilizing an immersion mixer or operating in batches with a standing mixer, purée. Return to the pot and remove the heat.

Adjust the flavorings and serve:

Add salt to taste. Depending upon the saltiness of the stock you are utilizing, you might need to add a minimum of a teaspoon or more to the soup. Add 1/2 teaspoon of newly ground black pepper. Add lemon juice. Right before serving, swirl in the cream. Adjust spices to taste. Sprinkle with black pepper and garnish with a sprig of fresh mint to serve. [11]

Nettle pasta

You can utilize any of your preferred pasta recipes and integrate the nettle.

Components

  • 3 cups flour
  • 2 or 3 large handfuls of fresh nettle tops (gathered from plants no more than 18″ high and just taking the leading 6″)
  • 2-3 eggs

Directions

  1. Bring nettle and water to a boil. Simmer for 15-20 minutes.
  2. Stress nettles, maintaining the water– you’ll use that water to boil your pasta in later.
  3. Puree nettles and the eggs utilizing immersion blender.
  4. Make a well out of the flour in a mixing bowl and add the nettles and eggs mixture. Mix thoroughly till you have a smooth dough ball. (you may require to include additional flour if the mixture is wet or the retained nettle water if the mix is dry.)
  5. Put the ball of dough in a bowl and let it mean 15 minutes.
  6. Roll out about 1/3 of the dough at a time into a ball.
  7. Cover the ball of dough with wet towel and let set aside for 10-15 minutes.
  8. Roll 1/3 of the dough at a time on a floured surface as thin as you would like– can be really thin or thicker if you like thick noodles.
  9. Cut into any length strip– as long or brief as you desire, or in squares if you wish to make ravioli. Hang them, if possible, for about 10 minutes. We have a pasta hanger, but you can use a tidy plastic hanger.
  10. Bring the saved nettle water to a boil again and place your green noodles into the boiling water. Cook for 3– 8 minutes depending on the thickness. Check them for doneness. [12]

Nettle syrup recipe for a healthy radiance

This fortifying syrup nurtures the blood, skin, and hair. It is excellent to utilize during times of tension, after menstruation or a prolonged health problem, while breastfeeding, or any time the body requires an additional boost (for a ready-made variation, attempt the strong woman syrup offered in our store). Speak with your doctor about this formula if you have excess iron stores, liver or kidney disease, coagulation problems, if you take blood-thinners, or if you are pregnant.

Active ingredients

  • 1 lb. Fresh nettle tops (or 4 oz. Dry)
  • 2 oz. Dried dang gui root
  • 2 oz. Dried milky oat tops (or 1/4 lb. Fresh)
  • 2 oz. Dried burdock root (or 1/4 pound. Fresh, around 1 large root)
  • 1 oz. Dried horsetail (or 2 oz. Fresh)
  • 2 oz. Prunes and/or raisins
  • 1 gallon (4 l) water
  • 1 cup blackstrap molasses
  • ( optional) ~ 2 tbsp. Citric acid

Instructions

  1. Combine herbs, dried fruit, and water in a non-reactive (stainless-steel or ceramic-lined) pot and bring to a boil.
  2. Decrease heat and simmer on low heat a minimum of two hours, or till water level has dropped to about half.
  3. Get rid of from heat and let cool. Strain out herbs, pushing through cheesecloth to capture all the liquid.
  4. While liquid is still warm (not hot), include molasses and stir until dissolved.
  5. Transfer to glass container and shop in fridge for up to 1 month.
  6. ( optional): to extend life span, add a tablespoon per quart of citric acid, or maintain with alcohol. To do this, procedure final syrup volume and include 50% of that volume of your favorite basic abv liquor (brandy or vodka works well), to develop a syrup that is 20% pure ethanol by volume. For example, if steps 1-4 resulted in 2 liters of syrup, you would need to add 1 liter of 40-proof alcohol to approach a 20% alcohol syrup. [13]

Nettle negative effects

Get emergency medical aid if you have any of these signs of an allergy: hives; tough breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Although not all adverse effects are known, nettle is believed to be possibly safe when taken for a short period of time (no longer than 6 months).

Typical side effects of nettle may include:.

  • Sweating;
  • Skin inflammation; or
  • Stomach discomfort. [14]

How to take?

120mg of stinging nettle (root) taken three times a day (totalling 360mg) is related to advantage in benign prostate hyperplasia.

For allergies, the studied dosage is 300 mg two times a day of freeze-dried nettle leaf.

The evidence is much better for nettle root and prostatic augmentation than for nettle leaf and allergic reactions. [15]

Possible interactions

Antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs (blood thinners)

Stinging nettle might impact the blood’s capability to embolisms, and might interfere with blood-thinning drugs, consisting of:.

  • Warfarin (coumadin)
  • Clopidogrel (plavix)
  • Aspirin

Drugs for high blood pressure

Stinging nettle may lower high blood pressure, so it could enhance the impacts of these drugs:.

  • Ace inhibitors: captopril (capoten), elaropril (vasotec), lisinopril (zestril), fosinopril (monopril)
  • Beta-blockers: atenolol (tenormin), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol xl), propranolol (induran)
  • calcium channel blockers: nifedipine (procardia), amlodipine (norvasc), verapamil (calan, isoptin)

Diuretics (water pills)

Since stinging nettle can act as a diuretic, it can increase the impacts of these drugs, raising the risk of dehydration:.

  • Furosemide (lasix)
  • Hydrocholorothiazide

Drugs for diabetes

Stinging nettle might lower blood glucose, so it might enhance the impacts of these drugs, raising the risk of hypoglycemia (low blood glucose).

Lithium

Stinging nettle may have a diuretic effect and may lower the body’s capability to remove this drug.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

In a clinical study of patients with severe arthritis, stewed stinging nettle leaves improved the anti-inflammatory result of diclofenac, an nsaid. Although this impact can minimize pain, speak to your medical professional prior to taking or using stinging nettle if you also take nsaids. [16]

What are warnings and safety measures for nettle?

Warnings

This medication contains nettle. Do not take stinging nettle or urtica dioica if you dislike nettle or any ingredients contained in this drug.

Stay out of reach of kids. In case of overdose, get medical aid or get in touch with a poison nerve center instantly.

Contraindications

Diabetes, impaired cardiac or kidney function. [17]

Conclusion

Nettle (urtica dioica l.) is herbaceous perennial that has actually been utilized for centuries in folk medicine. More recently, nettle extracts have also been used in cosmetics because of the many benefits of their topical application for skin health. Their potential anti-aging action is of specific interest and is mostly ascribed to their antioxidant capacity. Here, using a speculative style approach and a clustering analysis, we linked the phytochemical structure of nettle extracts to their biological activities. This method verified the antioxidant capacity of nettle extracts along with providing the first evidence of another mechanism for their anti-aging potential involving the inhibition of enzyme activities, such as elastase and collagenase. We associated these inhibitory effects to ursolic acid and quercetin present in the nettle extracts. Our outcomes also showed the possibility of drawing out ursolic acid, quercetin and other phenolic substances differentially to get an extract with a strong antioxidant capacity and anti-aging activities toward both elastase and collagenase. This could be of particular interest for cosmetic applications of nettle extracts. [18]

Recommendations

  1. Https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/nettle
  2. Https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-664/stinging-nettle
  3. Https://www.gaiaherbs.com/blogs/seeds-of-knowledge/an-essential-guide-to-nettle-history-benefits-and-uses
  4. Https://ahdb.org.uk/knowledge-library/distribution-and-biology-of-common-nettle-in-the-uk
  5. Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/urtica_dioica#distribution
  6. Https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/55911
  7. Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/325244#types
  8. Https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/stinging-nettle#toc_title_hdr_2
  9. Https://www.nutritioninnorfolk.co.uk/nutritious-nettles/
  10. Https://learn.eartheasy.com/articles/nettle-tea-how-to-make-a-natural-spring-tonic/
  11. Https://www.simplyrecipes.com/recipes/nettle_soup/
  12. Https://theherbalacademy.com/12-nettle-recipes-to-add-to-your-cookbook/
  13. Https://fiveflavorsherbs.com/blog/6-stinging-nettle-recipes-for-a-superfoodfilled-spring/
  14. Https://www.drugs.com/mtm/nettle.html#side-effects
  15. Https://examine.com/supplements/stinging-nettle/
  16. Https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/herb/stinging-nettle
  17. Https://www.rxlist.com/consumer_nettle/drugs-condition.htm#what_are_warnings_and_precautions_for_nettle
  18. Https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s1631074816300790
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