Maritime Pine

A mediterranean pine tree (pinus pinaster) having long needles in clusters of two, thick bark, and large cones, and widely cultivated for timber, pulp, and resin. (1 )


Maritime evergreen (pinus pinaster) grow in countries on the mediterranean sea. Its bark may be valuable for asthma and enhanced leg blood circulation.

Maritime pine consists of chemicals that might enhance blood circulation, stimulate the body immune system, decrease swelling, prevent infections, and have antioxidant results. Maritime evergreen that grow in southwest france are utilized to make pycnogenol, the trademarked name for a particular maritime pine bark extract.

Maritime pine bark extract is utilized for asthma, high cholesterol, decrease in memory, adhd, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific proof to support a number of these uses. (2 ).


Pinus pinaster is a popular topic in ecology because of its bothersome development and spread in south africa for the past 150 years after being imported into the region at the end of the 17th century (1685– 1693). It was found spreading in the cape peninsula by 1772. towards the end of the 18th century (1780 ), p. Pinaster was commonly planted, and at the start of the 19th century (1825– 1830), p. Pinaster was planted commercially as a lumber resource and for the forestry market. The pine tree species invades large locations and more specifically fynbos plants. Fynbos plants is a fire-prone shrubland vegetation that is discovered in the southern and southwest cape of south africa. It is found in greater abundance near water courses. Dispersal, environment loss, and fecundity are all aspects that impact spread rate. The types prefers acidic soils with medium to high-density greenery, however it can also grow in standard soils and even in sandy and poor soils, where only couple of commercial species can grow. (3 ).


Maritime pine is an evergreen, coniferous types of tree that grows to develop heights of 100 feet (30 m), with a commonly somewhat sinuous stem (straight in some locations, especially corsica and northwestern africa) and a generally open crown of regular, candelabra-like upswept branches, broadly ovoid-conic when young, ending up being irregular and denser with age.

  • Bark is very thick, flaky or plated, fissured, patterned red-brown, blackish and enthusiast.
  • Branching is primarily uninodal, however sometimes multinodal on energetic young trees.
  • Shoots are rough and stout, measuring 0.28 to 0.6 inch (7 – 15 mm) thick, colored enthusiast to yellow-brown.
  • Foliar buds are large, cylindric to ovoid-acute, with red-brown scales having long complimentary, revolute pointers, fringed with white hairs.
  • Adult leaves are kept for 1.5 to 3 years, measuring 4.8 to 10 inches (12 – 25 cm) long, borne in fascicles of 2 (often 3), with a persistent 0.8 inch (2 cm) sheath. They are green to yellow-green in color, sometimes tinged glaucous, spreading out, very stout, about 0.08 to 0.088 inch (2 – 2.2 mm) thick, with serrulate margins, and fine lines of stomata on all faces.
  • Juvenile leaves are strongly glaucous, determining 1.2 to 2.4 inches (3 – 6 cm) long, on slim 0.12 inch (3 mm) shoots, growing for the first 2 to 5 years of the tree’s life.
  • Seed cones are a little deflexed on short stout stalks, symmetrical, hard, heavy, and ovoid-conic in shape, each measuring 3.6 to 7.2 inches (9 – 18 cm) long, by 1.6 to 2.4 inches (4 – 6 cm) broad when closed, ripening abundant glossy chestnut-brown in april two years after pollination, and opening the same summer season or as much as ten years later on, to 2.8 to 4.4 inches (7 – 11 cm) broad.
  • Seed scales are stout, thick, woody, and stiff; the apophysis is 0.4 to 0.64 inch (10 – 16 mm) long by 0.72 to 1.04 inches (18 – 26 mm) broad, with a rhomboid outline, and a strong raised transverse ridge; the stout umbo is dorsal, colored blackish gray, and measures 0.16 to 0.28 inch (4 – 7 mm) large and 0.12 inch (3 mm) high.
  • Seeds are glossy blackish brown above, matte-gray below. Each procedures 0.28 to 0.44 inch (7 – 11 mm) by 0.2 inch (5 mm) with an 0.72 to 1 inch (18 – 25 mm) by 0.4 inch (10 mm) wing, that is buff in color with many straight dark brown streaks; it is easily removed from the seed. (4 )

Environmental requirements

  1. Pinaster endures various environment conditions depending on the subspecies. In general, it occurs naturally in warm temperate areas including the mediterranean location, with an oceanic impact on environment, generally in humid and sub-humid areas, where yearly rainfall is greater than 600 mm. In spite of that, it is possible for trees to survive in locations with just 400 mm annual rainfall, offering that there is sufficient climatic wetness. In particular, the southern provenances (p. Pinaster subsp. Pinaster) might grow well in semi-arid conditions. However, it will grow best in areas with a mean annual precipitation of 850 mm, with at least 75 mm in the duration between may and september. In its native variety it only stands up to a maximum of 100 consecutive days without rains, but when used in plantations in some areas it can endure a maximum of 150 days of drought. Maritime pine can not endure shade, and grows best at low and medium elevations.
  2. Pinaster may be found in both flat and mountainous websites in its native variety, but usually at low to moderate elevations. The subspecies atlantica is less tolerant of high elevation than the subspecies pinaster. It appears to prefer siliceous soils with a coarse texture, especially sandy soils, but it can endure other soil types. The subspecies pinaster can endure some calcareous soils, specifically when they have a coarse texture and are free-draining, whereas subsp. Atlantica, however, has a low tolerance to limestone soils, and displays a clear choice for sandy silicate soils, and has played a crucial function in the afforestation of loose dune along the western coast of the iberian peninsula especially in northern and main portugal. It has actually adapted well to a substrate of silicate origin with low aggregation, poor in major nutrients and raw material. Afforestation of these areas was carried out during the late 1800s and very first half of the 1900s, and played a major role in dune combination and soil improvement. Likewise, the landes area of southwestern france, with sandy soils, has actually been extensively planted with p. Pinaster. In south africa, a study of 4 intrusive pines discovered that soil ph was the most crucial predictor for the distribution of isolated trees, whereas the establishment of dense pine stands was mostly figured out by fire history. (5 )


Maritime pine (pinus pinaster) is a fast-growing, medium-sized coniferous tree native to the western mediterranean sea. It has been cultivated and is now naturally discovered in other parts of central and southern europe and in north africa.

The wood is utilized for constructions, furnishings and poles, while its resin is tapped to make rosin and turpentine. Other uses include stabilisation of dunes and slopes, as shelterbelts near coastal areas and for production of plant nursery substrates.

The light-demanding tree consists of numerous different subspecies with high genetic variety and is found in a broad eco-friendly range. Originally, the tree grew in warm and damp regions but, as a result of many years of cultivation and adjustment outside its natural range, it is now able to tolerate different conditions, consisting of frost, summer dry spell and calcareous and bad soils. It grows in elevations in between water level and 2000 m in pure or mixed stands. Maritime pine is considered intrusive in the southern hemisphere. (6 ).

What is french maritime pine bark extract?

A dietary supplement containing an extract acquired from the french maritime pine bark pinus pinaster, with possible immunomodulating and antioxidant activities. The french maritime pine bark extract contains high amounts of the phytochemicals proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidins are able to scavenge complimentary radicals, and therefore might inhibit cellular damage. This extract might also ameliorate the symptoms of lymphedema and enhance blood circulation. It might also stimulate the body immune system and have antioxidant results. (7 ).

What is it utilized for?

Traditional/ethnobotanical usages

In 1535, a french explorer is said to have actually used tea made from the bark of the maritime pine to treat scurvy amongst his sailors when his ship became icebound. The extract has actually been utilized for anemia, swelling, and heart/blood vessel conditions. Pine bark has actually been utilized as a food source in emergencies. Pine bark extract is readily available without a prescription in us organic food stores and pharmacies, along with from online sources.

General uses

Pine bark extract has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions and has been studied for a vast array of ailments, including asthma, attention deficit disorder, long-term blood flow issues, heart/blood vessel conditions, diabetes, and erectile dysfunction. Nevertheless, many scientific studies have been small and inadequately developed. (8 ).

Mechanism of action

The primary constituents of pine bark extracts are procyanidins and phenolic acids. Pine bark extract functions as an antioxidant by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen types and reducing production of peroxides. It increases the activities of antioxidant enzymes by increasing the intracellular glutathione levels. In addition to increasing no production which causes vasodilation, pine bark extract also obstructs the nf-kb activation stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) and inhibits production of adhesion proteins that trigger swelling and atherosclerosis.

In vitro, pycnogenol induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and minimized neuronal apoptosis, an essential feature of alzheimer’s disease, by decreasing totally free radical generation. In animal research studies, cardioprotective impacts were likewise credited to complimentary extreme scavenging. (9 ).

Health advantages of pine bark extract

In southern france, the gorgeous and rich forests are house to a types of french evergreen (pinus pinaster) which contain special health-promoting properties. Its usage dates back to the 1500s when french explorer jacques cartier and his sailors battled with scurvy– frank vitamin c deficiency– during their long cruising trips from france to the brand-new world. The story goes that very first nations people shared their ancestral wisdom with cartier and utilized the regional evergreen bark as a decoction (e.g. Herbal tea) to prevent scurvy.

Today, we understand that pine bark is an excellent source of vitamin c (the cure for scurvy) in addition to various phytochemicals, natural plant compounds that support better health. The “all-stars” of the group are proanthocyanidins, effective antioxidant compounds (more powerful than vitamin c and e) that provide a wealth of added health benefits. Let’s take a closer look listed below.

Boost antioxidant status

If you’re overweight, out of shape, or in poor health, your body will produce an excess of free extreme compounds that activate swelling throughout the body, harming your dna and compromising your health. Anti-oxidants snuff out these internal fires. Research study has actually shown that pycnogenol– a trademarked formula of pine bark extract– has the ability to prevent and decrease this oxidative damage from complimentary radicals.ensuring you eat a diet plan high in vegetables and fruit is also crucial to lay the foundation for robust antioxidant consumption (coffee is another fantastic source, just keep in mind to ditch the sugar!).

Improve impotence (blood flow)

Pine bark extract has a significant influence on nitric oxide (no) levels in the body, which are accountable for vasodilation and enhancing blood flow. A recent study discovered the mix of pine bark extract and arginine (an amino acid that likewise enhances no production) were effective for enhancing moderate to moderate erectile dysfunction.if you struggle with low libido or erectile dysfunction, or struggle with high blood pressure, improving no levels in the body is an effective technique for assisting to reverse these conditions.

Balance blood sugar level

Pine bark extract might supply some added advantages for you if you battle with high blood glucose, pre-diabetes, or diabetes. A double blind, placebo-controlled research study of 77 diabetic patients taking their prescription medications, along with 100mg of supplemental pycnogenol, found greater enhancement in blood sugar control and cardiovascular health when pine bark extract was combined with diabetic medications. (ensure to speak with your medical professional prior to integrating any supplements with current medications you’re taking.).

Combat common colds

There is absolutely nothing more bothersome than a bothersome cold; it stalls your efficiency at work and in the fitness center. A study of 146 people experiencing a common cold found supplementing with pycnogenol had the ability to reduce the duration (i.e. The number of days) and severity (i.e. The strength of the signs you experience) of the colds. This is fantastic news for keeping up your rate, even if you have actually got the sniffles.

Increase brain function

If you’ve been struggling with forgetting small details– like where you put your automobile keys or what you’re expected to get for supper– you might be experiencing the early signs of age-related cognitive decrease. Stress, poor diet, and absence of sleep can all contribute to sub-optimal brain function, and while diet and workout are great for enhancing healthy brain function, so too is pine bark extract. New research shows that adults over the age of 55, supplementing with pycnogenol throughout one year, revealed remarkable lead to brain associated jobs compared to placebo groups. The researchers believe the advantages come from pine bark extract’s antioxidant impacts and ability to reduce oxidative tension (associated with bad diet, high stress, absence of workout, and so on).

Protect skin from sun damage

Getting enough sun direct exposure and vitamin d is crucial for your health and vitality. New research shows that not getting adequate sun exposure is as unsafe to your health as smoking.unfortunately; you don’t want to compromise your skin along the way. The addition of supplemental pycnogenol has actually been shown to provide security from damaging uvb rays and might reduce hyperpigmentation and improve skin barrier function. If you spend a great deal of time in the sun, this can be a great added skin assistance.

Reduce inflammation

Cytokines are a group of pro-inflammatory molecules that are launched when you get a cold or flu, suffer from a fall or injury (or train too hard in the health club!), or if you’re dealing with a persistent health condition. Research study shows that pine bark extract can lowering pro-inflammatory cytokines il-1 and il-6, responsible for many of the adverse effects of persistent inflammation.

Pine bark extract can make an excellent addition to your nutritional arsenal for its potent antioxidant support, as well as its added assistance for blood circulation, blood glucose, inflammation, resistance, brain function and skin assistance. Pycnogenol is a standardized supplement formula ensured to include a minimum of 65-75% proanthocyanidins, the active ingredient that activates all these benefits. Keep in mind, an excellent diet plan and regular exercise ought to constantly be the structure for building your best health. Nevertheless, in some cases the body requires a little added support and additional pycnogenol can go a long way to keeping your brain and body sharp this winter season. (10 ).

Other prospective uses

Pine bark extracts are also being investigated for a wide range of other usages in human, animal, and test-tube research studies. These consist of:.

  • Healthy aging
  • Injury recovery
  • Menopause bone loss
  • Alzheimer’s illness
  • Attention deficit disorder (adhd)
  • Skin health
  • Athletic performance
  • Enhanced cognition
  • Impotence

That said, there’s not yet adequate proof to totally support these usages.


Pine bark extract is being studied as a therapeutic choice to deal with various conditions. Its abilities to decrease swelling and act as an antioxidant make it a strong prospect to treat chronic illness. (11 ).

Side effects of maritime pine

There suffices research study out there on pine bark extract to understand that it tends to trigger some bothersome (however normally moderate) adverse effects. These could consist of:.

  • Dizziness
  • Stomach irritation
  • Irritation
  • Low energy
  • Headaches
  • Mouth sores
  • Foul breath

Exist any serious drawbacks?

Delighted you asked. Because human studies are doing not have, pine bark extract is * potentially safe * when taken by mouth in doses of 50 to 450 milligrams everyday (depending upon what it is being taken for) for approximately 1 year. That stated, it’s constantly an actually good concept to talk with your physician before including any brand-new supplement to your regimen.

Remember! Even if something is “natural” doesn’t immediately mean it’s good for you or even harmless.

Another essential fyi: some people might be at risk of possibly major negative effects from pine bark extract. You should not take the stuff.

if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. There’s insufficient evidence to say that it’s for sure safe, so don’t risk it.

You have an autoimmune condition. Because pine bark extract can promote the immune system, it may make your signs even worse.

You take antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs. The supplement might up your danger for bleeding if you’re taking these medications.

You have diabetes. It’s possible that pine bark extract could mess with your blood glucose. (12 ).

Pycnogenol vs. Pine bark extract

Pycnogenol is a trademarked name for pine bark extract, and there is little to no difference in between the two in terms of composition or effects. You may use pine bark extract or pycnogenol to assist treat a range of medical conditions, consisting of chronic venous insufficiency, retinopathy or erectile dysfunction. Prior to you take pycnogenol or pine bark extract, consult your medical professional to talk about the appropriate dose and prospective health dangers.


French marine pine bark extract is commonly offered under the name pycnogenol. It is used to prevent and treat persistent venous deficiency, along with a number of other medical conditions, according to the memorial sloan-kettering cancer center. Pycnogenol basically includes pine bark extract from the pinus maritima tree. The natural treatment is in some cases also called french maritime pine bark extract, pygenol or oligomeric proanthocyanidin (opc).


Pine bark extract and pycnogenol contain opcs, also called procyanidolic oligomers (pcos), which are likewise discovered in grape seed extract, reports the university of pittsburgh medical center (upmc). Opcs appear to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral and antimicrobial actions and might act to stimulate your body immune system, secure versus atherosclerosis and avoid certain kinds of cancers, according to the sloan-kettering. Particularly, the opcs in pine bark extract and pycnogenol appear to prevent leaking in the blood vessels, and the flavonoids called catechin and taxifolin in the herb stimulate nitric oxide production in the body, which unwinds your capillary, explains.


Both pine bark extract and the item pycnogenol have comparable usages, generally for treating or preventing chronic venous insufficiency, states. They might also assist in treating hypertension, impotence, various inflammation-related conditions and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as assistance in avoiding cancer, keeps in mind sloan-kettering. Pycnogenol and pine bark extract might assist deal with easy bruising, varicose veins, edema, diabetes and diabetic neuropathy or retinopathy, piles, premenstrual syndrome and tourist’s apoplexy, according to the upmc. You may take pine bark extract or pycnogenol to assist support weight reduction and enhance night vision, in addition to treat lupus, menopausal symptoms, gum illness, asthma, allergies and liver cirrhosis. No definitive scientific research study supports making use of pycnogenol or pine bark extract to prevent or treat any medical condition, nevertheless. (13 ).


The following dosages have actually been studied in scientific research study:.

By mouth:

  • For allergic reactions: 50 mg twice daily.
  • For asthma in kids: 1 mg per pound of body weight given in 2 divided doses.
  • For poor flow: 45-360 mg daily, or 50-100 mg 3 times daily.
  • For illness of the retina, including those related to diabetes: 50 mg three times daily.
  • For mild hypertension: 200 mg of pycnogenol daily.
  • For improving workout capacity in professional athletes: 200 mg daily. (14 )



The danger or intensity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with abciximab.


The risk or seriousness of bleeding and thrombocytopenia can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with abrocitinib.


The danger or intensity of bleeding can be increased when aceclofenac is integrated with maritime pine extract.


The danger or severity of bleeding can be increased when acemetacin is integrated with maritime pine extract.


The threat or intensity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with acenocoumarol.

Acetylsalicylic acid

Acetylsalicylic acid may increase the antiplatelet activities of maritime pine extract.


The danger or severity of bleeding can be increased when alclofenac is combined with maritime pine extract.


The danger or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with aldesleukin.


The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with alemtuzumab.


The danger or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with alteplase. (15 ).

Safety measures

Prior to using pine bark extract, inform your medical professional about your current list of medications, over-the-counter products (e.g. Vitamins, organic supplements, etc), allergic reactions, pre-existing diseases, and current health conditions (e.g. Pregnancy, upcoming surgical treatment, and so on). Some health conditions might make you more susceptible to the side-effects of the drug. Take as directed by your physician or follow the direction printed on the item insert. Dose is based upon your condition. Inform your doctor if your condition continues or intensifies. Important counseling points are listed below.

Pregnant, preparing to get pregnant or breastfeeding. (16 ).


Concerning the food market, pine bark extracts have actually been effectively utilized as antioxidants in the meat market and have actually been proposed as intriguing ingredients for the juice industry and songzhen noodles production. On the other hand, different pinus spp bark extracts have actually been evaluated versus a wide variety of disorders -cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, neuroprotective effect and other oxidative stress and inflammatory-related diseases. Both in vitro and in vivo assays suggest a promising future for pine as an adjuvant treatment. (17 ).


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