Green-lipped mussel

What is green-lipped mussel?

Green-lipped mussel is a dietary supplement drawn from a type of mussel native to New Zealand. We do not actually understand how it works, however it includes omega-3 fats, which have anti-inflammatory and joint-protecting properties. Evidence recommends that it might be of some usage to people with osteoarthritis when brought with paracetamol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids). It’s not effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis.

Family: Nutritional supplement

Taxonomic name: Perna canaliculus

Other names: New Zealand mussel, greenshell mussel, Seaton ®, GLM, Lyprinol®. Green-lipped mussel is a dietary supplement taken from perna canaliculus, a bivalve mollusc (mussel) belonging to New Zealand. You can buy it from high-street retailers. (1 ).

Green-lipped mussels are packed with nutrients

The green-lipped mussel is a staple food of the native Māori people of New Zealand’s coasts.

Interest in the mussel’s prospective health benefits started in the early 1970s and came from the observation that Māori individuals had a lower occurrence of arthritis than people who lived inland.

It was later figured out that the mussels were an abundant source of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fats, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

In addition, scientists have actually recognized other kinds of fats from the mussels. They might also have anti-inflammatory impacts by preventing enzymes and proteins that produce inflammation and pain.

Likewise, green lipped-mussels include chondroitin sulfate, a part of connective tissues like joints and bones that may reduce swelling in the same way.

In addition to these anti-inflammatory nutrients, the mussels are an excellent source of zinc and an outstanding source of iron, selenium, and several B-vitamins. (2 ).

System of Action

An active ingredient in GLM is furan fats (F-acids). These are natural– but rare and very potent– antioxidants. F-acids are fats often discovered in algae might explain their anti-inflammatory properties and be one of the primary factor GLM is helpful. (Another of GLM’s active components lyprinol, a lipid extract, has homes comparable to other omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which might assist, too.).

Furan fats are omega-3 fatty acids, like those in fish oil, which hinder 5′- lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase paths, comparable to anti-inflammatory medications, but without the side effects. The biochemical paths blocked are accountable for the production of leukotrienes and prostaglandins, both chemicals which trigger swelling.

For those clinically likely, this explains why GLM may be an useful tool for asthma, osteoarthritis, and other inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. GLM likewise has an useful effect on the gut microbiome.

Green Lipped Mussel is a Prebiotic

There are many health benefits to prebiotics. A practical food or supplement consumed by helpful gut bacteria, probiotics help optimize the gut microbiome. According to studies, GLM serves as a nutrient for beneficial gut bacteria, which when consumed, motivates these healthy germs to produce short-chain fats (scfas), substances which put in numerous useful impacts throughout the body. This enhanced state helps the body accomplish balance, or homeostasis, allowing the body to work at ideal levels and minimize systemic swelling.


Asthma is a reversible inflammatory lung illness that takes place when the muscles surrounding the lung tissues constrict. Throughout an asthma attack, it is hard to breathe.

Worldwide, 300 million people are affected with asthma while almost 250,000 people pass away from the condition each year. During an asthma attack, an individual might experience symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Specific triggers, together with breathing infections or, often, allergies to pollen or animal dander, can bring on an attack. Obesity, specified in those with a body mass index of 30 or more, doubles a person’s threat for developing asthma.

There is also a kind of asthma referred to as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), which happens during exercise. Those who have this type of asthma regularly require to utilize their medications prior to or during exercise in order to breathe easily. There are natural methods to asthma one can take, and GLM is one that some find helpful.

GLM can be useful in decreasing asthma symptoms, according to a 2002 study. Even more, according to a 2013 research study, GLM could be valuable in minimizing wheezing and shortness of breath, permitting those afflicted a lowered requirement for their rescue inhalers. If you are on medications, speak with your doctor prior to stopping any medications.


Osteoarthritis generally results from general “wear and tear” of the joints. It happens due to the destruction of cartilage, which serves as a cushion that covers the bone. Early indications of osteoarthritis might begin when a person is around 40 years of ages and can progress as one ages. The joints can be tender but are rarely inflamed.

Joint injury, at any age, can likewise cause osteoarthritis in the affected joint. When my son Joshua was in the sixth grade, he broke his elbow playing basketball. He underwent surgery to have a pin put, so the bone could be returned in place. At age 20, he has a mild type of arthritis in his elbow joint. This is common for lots of who have ever had joint-related trauma. The pain and tightness are often worse throughout cold weather, when achiness might increase.

A 2000 study revealed GLM’s anti-inflammatory effects in those with arthritis, and general safety when compared to nsaids.

A 2008 study compared lyprinol, an extract from GLM, to naproxen and olive oil. Utilizing rodents with arthritis, researchers revealed the GLM extract was better at lowering inflammation. A 2012 study of 80 clients with osteoarthritis, over a 12-week period, did disappoint a significant decrease in arthritis-related discomfort utilizing a standardized pain scale, but scientists did note that those on the GLM used less acetaminophen (paracetamol), recommending they had a little less pain. A 2018 research study also showed GLM’s benefit in lowering osteoarthritis discomfort. I have actually likewise encountered reports of GLM being provided to pet dogs with arthritis. The reports have actually been favorable showing pet dogs feel much better when taking this anti-inflammatory. It appears that both people, and our aged pets, can both benefit from nature’s anti-inflammatories.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is the outcome of an autoimmune condition in which the body immune system attacks the lining of the joints. This results in the destruction of the cartilage and can occur at any age. There is even a type called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), which as the name suggests, can affect kids. It begins over the course of a couple of weeks or months with early morning tightness generally continuing for more than an hour. Numerous clients will have associated digestive tract issues and, overall, might feel fatigued and unhealthy.

Due to GLM’s anti-inflammatory result, it has been proposed in research studies that this supplement can be useful in decreasing inflammation in those with rheumatoid arthritis. A 2000 case study reported on a client with rheumatoid arthritis who took advantage of GLM supplementation, while a 2007 study in BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine suggested that GLM could be an useful supplement in those with rheumatoid arthritis. To date, the amount of studies is restricted and guaranteed benefit can not be suggested until more research is done. There is no evidence of damage.

Muscle Aches

Muscle pains are a common symptom of those who participate in athletics, routine workout and in those who work carrying out manual labor. Frequently, one will take anti-inflammatory medications and even muscle relaxers. However, negative effects such as stomach discomfort, peptic ulcer disease and drowsiness restrict their usage. Many prefer natural alternatives.

While magnesium is a good option for muscle spasms, GLM can be thought about to assist muscle discomfort according to a 2015 research study. A 2013 study demonstrated that long-distance runners who took a green lipped mussel supplement had minimized muscle pain compared to those who did not. This is a great supplement to contribute to your cabinet if you are physically active.


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a typical disorder affecting kids, teenagers, and even grownups. Existing treatment focuses on behavioral therapy, diet plan changes, and when that is not enough prescription medication. Lots of parents are concerned about drug therapy as stimulants are often the class of medications selected. These medications have negative effects and can elevate high blood pressure, suppress appetite, and sometimes impact personality in undesirable ways.

Natural therapies are often sought to help offer one an one-upmanship. Research studies have actually kept in mind that those with ADHD tend to have lower levels of essential fats in their blood. As a result, therapy with such is thought about.

A 2017 research study of 144 children offered half with a proprietary blend of green lipped mussel and the other half with a placebo tablet. The kids were followed for 14 weeks. Based upon the results, the researchers concluded that GLM may be useful in decreasing hyperactivity and inattention in kids with ADHD. This result is consistent with other studies, including a meta-analysis research study supporting essential fats benefit in the treatment of those with ADHD symptoms. Due to glms general security profile, this supplement is regularly considered. (3 ).

The manufacturing procedure of Green Lipped Mussels

Green lipped mussels were gathered from the New Zealand coastline by hand up till 1960 when the need grew. Because, the Japanese longline system of harvesting entered effect. This technique includes a longline being erupted into the open waters. The green lipped mussels discover, attach and grow on the line and whilst growing, they require no food other than the pristine clear New Zealand waters.

Throughout the 1970’s, green lipped mussels were heavily collected and shipped to the USA. In 1981, these large shipments stopped overnight due to stringent drug legislation laws coming into impact. After this, the mussels have because been collected and frozen and are now legal safe to deliver, which rapidly became the prime export method.

When gathered from the waters, the mussels can only live for a couple of hours so during this time the mussels are processed for freezing and after that sent throughout the world for supplement usage.

The growing and gathering procedure is all natural, sustainable and similarly great for the environment. To be made into a supplement, the contents of the green lipped mussel is extracted, freeze dried, ground and took into a pill. There are no contaminants or chemicals taken in or added to the mussels prior to export.

New Zealand Trade and Enterprise think about green lipped mussel extract to be one of the most reliable natural anti-inflammatory and joint supplements offered. It is now shipped to over 80 nations and the world’s biggest markets.

Structure of Green Lipped Mussel

Green lipped mussel supplements are made up of several active anti-inflammatory ingredients, just the same as raw green lipped mussels. The main active homes are glycoproteins, omega-3 fats and furan fats.

It also contains vital vitamins and minerals that are useful for joint conditions that includes vitamin C and E, zinc, copper and selenium. All chemicals, vitamins and minerals add to joint and bone health.

Glycoproteins are proteins that have actually sugars attached to them. These sugars are the active element which works to decrease joint inflammation. They are also studied and proven to have advantages for the immune system as they increase action and reactiveness to reduce the effectiveness of bad germs and foreign intruders.

The essential omega-3 fats likewise have anti-inflammatory effects, which helps reduce swelling and can hinder swelling and conditions like osteoarthritis happening in the first place.

Research discovered that green lipped mussels also contain other active anti-inflammatory ingredients which are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). These belong to the omega-3 fats usually found in fish oil and hold numerous benefits for swelling of the body, consisting of the eyes, bowels, brain and heart. Your body can just make a small amount of these fats so it is important to consume them from other sources, like green lipped mussel supplements.

There is likewise an acid that is not discovered in lots of marine species and oil called eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA), which decreases the production of cyclooxygenase, an enzyme which affects inflammation. This acid assists the decline and slow development of pain, inflammation of joints to assist movement.

The concentration of the acids found in green lipped mussels is greater than other marine oils, for that reason you need less of them to profit.

Green lipped mussels likewise include furan fatty acids which assist inhibit the production of immune chemicals which cause swelling. Furan fats are an anti-oxidant that have been medically evaluated for their anti-inflammation advantages and are shown to be effective.

Its makeup of minerals, vitamins, omega-3’s and anti-oxidants might make green lipped mussels be thought about to some as a superfood. The healthy value is greater than other marine oils and these components can be advantageous for other areas of health too. (4 ).

The Benefits of Green Lipped Mussels for Dogs

The best known parts of green lipped mussels are Omega-3 fats, including the fatty acids EPA and DHA, discusses Petty. “Omega-3s work by lowering the level of swelling associated with illness such as osteoarthritis,” Petty states. Although this is the same substance found in fish oil, in the case of green lipped mussels, this is combined with other substances that likewise combat joint inflammation and discomfort.

A good example of these compounds is eicosatetraenoic acid, or ETA. “The ETA is found only in green lipped mussels and binds cyclooxygenase, which is an enzyme that triggers swelling,” according to Dr. Judy Morgan, DVM, an accredited and certified veterinary acupuncturist and food therapist who integrates holistic medicine with traditional Western techniques in her practice. “They likewise consist of glucosamine, chondroitin, zinc, and magnesium, which are advantageous for joint metabolism.”.

In addition, green lipped mussels have likewise been shown to contain glycosaminoglycans, substances with joint protective residential or commercial properties, according to Petty. “A lot of the other substances in green lipped mussels such as minerals and vitamins might add to their pain-relieving properties, but more research study requires to be done,” says Petty. (5 ).

What amount of omega-3 fats are in green-lipped mussels?

1,000 mg freeze-dried green-lipped mussel powder includes:.

  • Omega-3 EPA + DHA: 9– 28 mg
  • Omega-3 ETA: 0.3 mg

The advised everyday doses of green-lipped mussel for a dog that weighs 20 kilograms vary between 300 and 500 mg. It means that a dog weighing 20 kgs gets an optimum of 15 mg omega-3 fatty acids (ETA, EPA, DPA and DHA) from freeze-dried green-lipped mussel.

In comparison: The everyday dose of Nutrolin ® HIP & & JOINT for a dog weighing 20 kg is 5 ml fish oil and 2 tablets. The fish oil contains 1,400 mg omega-3 fats (ETA, EPA, DPA and DHA), which is almost 100 times more than in the corresponding dosage of green-lipped mussel. (6 ).

Scientific Introduction


Minimal scientific research studies recommend that Perna mussel extracts might have efficacy in the treatment of diseases with inflammatory components, such as arthritis and asthma. Nevertheless, clashing trial outcomes have been reported.


Limited clinical trial data are available to notify restorative dosing. In arthritis and asthma trials, various dosages from multi-ingredient business preparations have been described, making it difficult to establish dosing recommendations.


Hypersensitivity to shellfish. Usage with caution in people with hepatic problems.


Prevent use. Info regarding security and effectiveness in pregnancy and lactation is doing not have. Animal studies suggest that elements of Perna extracts might have negative effects on a fetus. (7 ).

Negative effects

When taken by mouth: New Zealand green-lipped mussel is POSSIBLY SAFE for many people. It can trigger some negative effects such as itching, gout, abdominal pain, heart burn, diarrhea, nausea, and intestinal tract gas. In unusual cases, it might cause liver problems. (8 ).

In research studies, green-lipped mussel has not caused much in the method of side effects aside from periodic mild digestive distress. Individuals with shellfish allergic reactions, nevertheless, must prevent green-lipped mussel.

Unlike oysters, green-lipped mussel does not appear to contain heavy metals. (9 ).

Green-lipped mussel products have been usually well endured nevertheless possible negative effects have been explained. They may be following:

Cardiovascular: Fluid retention has actually been reported as a negative result of green-lipped mussel usage. There is also a case report from a medical research study where one patient in the Lyprinol treatment group suffered cardiac arrest. The relevance of this to the treatment is uncertain.

Dermatologic: According to the The Australian Rheumatism Association, skin rash is listed as a possible unfavorable result of using Seatone green-lipped mussel extract. Itching, hives and metal taste have also been reported.

Gastrointestinal: Stomach upset, flatulence and moderate queasiness are possible adverse effecst of using Seatone greenlipped mussel extract.

Liver: The Australian Rheumatism Association reported liver disease as a possible negative impact of using Seatone green-lipped mussel extracts. Possible hazardous hepatitis has been related to Seatone in a number of case reports. In one medical trial, 2 topics taking Lyprinol left from the study due to nausea and abnormal liver function, although causality is unclear.

Musculoskeletal: Gout may be a possible unfavorable effect of using Seatone green-lipped mussel extract. Of rheumatoid arthritis patients taking Seatone for 90 days, 10% reported a transient worsening of symptoms, although no other negative occasions were experienced.

Neurologic/CNS: Green-lipped mussel’s B4 analog of brevetoxin B (BTXB4), has actually been identified as the major contaminant in green-lipped mussel, and has been associated with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.

Pulmonary/respiratory: Although green-lipped mussel extract has actually been proposed as an asthma treatment there is some data showing that some particular people might experience trouble breathing after ingesting or inhaling green-lipped mussel items. Lung dysfunction and numerous respiratory signs have been reported in New Zealand mussel openers.

Kidney: Fluid retention has been reported as a negative effects of green-lipped mussel use.

Other side impacts: Polioviruses have been discovered to survive in green-lipped mussels, both in fresh mussels and in those frozen for up to 28 days at 20 degrees Celsius which may constitute a substantial public health threat.

Preventative measures and cautions throughout Green-lipped mussel’s items use

Use cautiously in patients taking anti-inflammatory medications. It has actually been recommended that green-lipped mussel might enhance not only the advantages of other anti-inflammatory drugs, however likewise their negative results (particularly intestinal upset).

Usage meticulously in patients with asthma; although green-lipped mussel has been suggested to have anti-asthmatic effects, lung dysfunction and multiple respiratory signs have actually been reported in New Zealand mussel openers.

Avoid in clients with liver illness, due to prospective harmful liver disease associated with green-lipped mussel.

Avoid in patients with recognized allergy/hypersensitivity to green-lipped mussel or other shellfish (mollusks, shellfishes). Powdered greenlipped mussel is reported to be more allergenic than lipid extracts; allergic reactions to gelatin (utilized in pill preparations) have likewise been noted. (10 ).


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