Glucosamine is a natural compound discovered in cartilage– the hard tissue that cushions joints.

In supplement type, glucosamine is gathered from shells of shellfish or made in a lab. There are numerous forms of glucosamine, including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride and N-acetyl glucosamine. These supplements aren’t considered interchangeable.

Individuals utilize glucosamine sulfate orally to treat a painful condition brought on by swelling, breakdown and ultimate loss of cartilage (osteoarthritis).


Research on glucosamine usage for specific conditions reveals:.

Osteoarthritis. Oral use of glucosamine sulfate may supply some pain relief for people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Some research shows that it may likewise help slow knee joint degeneration associated with osteoarthritis. More research studies are needed to figure out the benefits of glucosamine sulfate supplements for osteoarthritis of the hip, spinal column or hand.

Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research study suggests that oral use of glucosamine hydrochloride might decrease discomfort related to rheumatoid arthritis. However, scientists didn’t see an improvement in swelling or the variety of unpleasant or inflamed joints.

When thinking about glucosamine, read item labels carefully to ensure you pick the right form. There’s less clinical proof to support making use of N-acetyl glucosamine in treating osteoarthritis, and more research is required to confirm its benefits. (1 ).


The body utilizes glucosamine to develop and fix cartilage. Cartilage is a versatile, hard, rubbery connective tissue that secures the bones in the joints. It provides padding and prevents the bones from rubbing together. As people age, their cartilage can become less flexible and start to break down. This can result in discomfort, inflammation, and tissue damage, which, for example, happens in osteoarthritis.

There is some proof that glucosamine might slow this process and advantage cartilage health.

Glucosamine happens naturally in the body, however levels fall as people get older. In time, the reduction could contribute to joint degeneration. (2 ).


Glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose) is an endogenous aminomonosaccharide synthesized from glucose and used for biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans. Glucosamine is present in almost all human tissues, extremely focused in connective tissues of the human body, and discovered at highest concentrations in the cartilage. In human beings, about 90 percent of glucosamine is absorbed when administered as an oral dose of glucosamine sulfate, and is quickly included into articular cartilage. Glucosamine can be discovered in lots of forms, consisting of sulfate, hydrochloride, N-acetyl-glucosamine, or chlorohydrate salt, and as a dextrorotatory isomer. There is some dispute over which type is most reliable. Pooled findings from studies using a particular commercial glucosamine sulfate product called Dona suggest that this formulation minimizes osteoarthritis discomfort, whereas other formulas do not.11 Another research study performed in China supplies some evidence that glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine sulfate are similarly efficient.

The sulfate salt of glucosamine types one half of the disaccharide subunit of keratan sulfate, which reduces in clients with osteoarthritis. Hyaluronic acid (discovered in articular cartilage and synovial fluid) is made up of duplicating dimeric units of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. Possible systems of action for the chondroprotective effect of glucosamine consist of direct stimulation of chondrocytes, incorporation of sulfur into cartilage, and defense versus degradative processes within the body through transformed gene expression. The specific mechanism of action for the possible result of glucosamine is unknown. (3 ).


In natural medicine, supporters claim that glucosamine may assist with the following health issue:.

  • Diabetes
  • High cholesterol
  • Swelling
  • Inflammatory bowel illness (such as ulcerative colitis)
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Temporomandibular joint condition
  • Health Advantages

Glucosamine has been commonly studied with undetermined results. It may provide health advantages consisting of a reduction in pain, although a 2018 review released in the journal Orthopedics recommends the advantages might be due to a placebo effect.

Here’s a take a look at a few of the key research studies and their findings:.


Glucosamine might be of benefit in the treatment of osteoarthritis, especially in the knee. In spite of some really favorable findings, there also a great deal of evidence contradicting these claims.

An early report published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews concluded that some preparations of glucosamine might decrease discomfort and improve working in people with recognized osteoarthritis. The research study analyzed 20 randomized regulated research studies involving a total of 2,570 grownups.

Among the biggest glucosamine research studies, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), questioned these results. Called the Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT), the two-year research study compared the effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin in 662 individuals with knee osteoarthritis and concluded that neither revealed any benefit in alleviating knee pain. Subsequent research studies have actually supplied no clearer evidence of any advantages. However, some researchers still contend that glucosamine not only helps reduce arthritis discomfort but also avoids cartilage loss.

According to a six-year study published in Arthritis Care & & Research study, cartilage loss appeared to be slowed in adults with knee osteoarthritis who had actually taken glucosamine and chondroitin for up to six years. The advantages appeared to be greater the longer the supplements are taken.

Further research is required to understand these contradictions.


Glucosamine is perhaps effective for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis, according to a little study published in the Journal of Reseach in Drug Store Practice. The trial included 60 grownups with TMJ who were offered either glucosamine, ibuprofen, or a placebo for 90 days. Although glucosamine and ibuprofen were both more reliable in easing pain than a placebo, ibuprofen showed superior to glucosamine.

Low Neck And Back Pain

Glucosamine might not benefit individuals with chronic lower back pain and degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis, according to a 2010 research study in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The six-month trial, including 250 people with both conditions, concluded that glucosamine was no much better than the placebo in providing arthritis discomfort relief. (4 ).

Inadequate Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for …

Joint pain brought on by drugs that lower estrogen levels. Early research study suggests that taking a mix of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in 2 or 3 divided doses daily for 24 weeks lowers pain in females taking drugs that lower estrogen levels for early stage breast cancer.

Unpleasant bladder syndrome (Interstitial cystitis). Early research suggests that taking a specific item consisting of glucosamine sulfate, salt hyaluronate, chondroitin sulfate, quercetin, and rutin (cystoprotek, Tischon Corporation, Westbury, NY) four times daily for 12 months reduces signs of unpleasant bladder syndrome.

Joint discomfort. Research shows that taking a particular product consisting of glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, Indian frankincense extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint Support, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) in 3 divided doses daily for 8 weeks lowers joint discomfort. But this product doesn’t seem to help joint stiffness or function.

Knee discomfort. Some research study shows that taking a particular item containing glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, Indian frankincense extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint Support, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) in 3 divided doses daily for 8 weeks decreases joint pain in people with knee pain. But this product doesn’t appear to help joint stiffness or function. Other early research study reveals that taking 1500 mg of glucosamine sulfate daily for 28 days does not reduce knee pain in athletes following a knee injury. Nevertheless, it does appear to enhance knee motion.

Numerous sclerosis. Early research study reveals that taking 1000 mg of glucosamine sulfate by mouth daily for 6 months might lower the relapse of multiple sclerosis.

Jaw discomfort (Temporomandibular disorder). Some research shows that taking glucosamine sulfate works about as well as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, and so on) For eliminating jaw pain. In some people, discomfort relief appears to continue for approximately 90 days after glucosamine sulfate is stopped. Nevertheless, research study recommends that when 1200 mg of glucosamine sulfate is taken by mouth daily for 6 months, jaw discomfort and the ability to open the jaw are not improved.

  • Weight loss.
  • Other conditions. 5

Who Should Take Glucosamine/Chondroitin Sulfate?

Many patients who experience osteoarthritis may gain from the favorable results of taking this supplement. The unpleasant symptoms of osteoarthritis might appear when cartilage becomes worn, and exposed bones begin to rub together. Conventional medication does not yet have a proven treatment to stop or slow the progression of osteoarthritis. Conventional medical treatment includes drug treatment to control the discomfort related to osteoarthritis. These treatments are in some cases disappointing for doctors and patients due to the fact that medications may not supply complete relief and can have undesirable adverse effects. A few of these clients might be prospects for nutritional supplements like glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate.

How Do I Take These Supplements?

Typical dose is 1500mg for glucosamine sulfate and 1200mg for chondroitin sulfate, taken daily. For body weight less than 100 pounds, the dosage is usually decreased to 1000mg for glucosamine sulfate and 800mg for chondroitin sulfate.

Duration of treatment has not yet been identified.

Reported improvement (e.g. Decrease in agonizing symptoms) differs from 3 weeks to as much as eight weeks.

Some research studies have revealed ongoing improvement of signs after oral consumption was stopped.

Normally, if there is no discomfort reduction after two months, there is long shot of improvement.

Patients ought to keep a journal of their signs when treatment begins to better judge any modifications in pain level or joint motion, and this details needs to be shown their physician. (6 ).

Glucosamine Connected to Heart Benefits

Glucosamine, the dietary supplement extensively utilized for arthritic pain, might reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease, scientists report.

Scientists took a look at 466,039 British males and females, ages 40 to 69, who were without heart disease at the start of the study. Individuals completed detailed health questionnaires that included details on making use of dietary supplements. Nearly 90,000 of them, or 19 percent, reported regular use of glucosamine. The research study, in BMJ, tracked the participants’ health for approximately 7 years.

Compared with those who did not utilize the supplement, glucosamine users had an 18 percent lower danger of coronary heart problem, and a 15 percent lower threat of any cardiovascular event. There was a weak association with a decreased threat for stroke.

The research study managed for diet, exercise, smoking cigarettes, disease history and other attributes.

” This is good news for people who take these supplements,” stated the senior author, Lu Qi, a professor of epidemiology at Tulane University. But prior to recommending its usage, he included, “we really require extra data from population research studies and further, more solid information from scientific trials.”.

The specific factor for the link is not known, but the scientists suggest that glucosamine might minimize inflammation by lowering blood levels of C reactive protein, an indicator of inflammation, or by mimicking the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet, which some research studies have actually recommended is related to a lower danger of cardiovascular disease.

The scientists note that effectiveness of glucosamine in clients with osteoarthritis and joint discomfort continues to be disputed. (7 ).

Natural Sources of Glucosamine

Glucosamine is a natural compound discovered in healthy cartilage– the hard tissue that cushions joints– and particularly in the fluid around the joints.

For dietary supplements, glucosamine is gathered from the shells of shellfish (like shrimp, lobster and crab) or made synthetically in a lab.

There are no health food sources of glucosamine besides shellfish shells, per the Mayo Center. However, there are numerous supplements offered. You will often see glucosamine offered in combination with chondroitin sulfate in a supplement type. (8 ).


The Arthritis Structure notes a recommended dose of 500 milligrams to 3 grams of glucosamine and chondroitin a day in divided dosages for a minimum of a month.

In addition

Believe it or not, as mentioned above there are no health food sources for glucosamine. Whereas the majority of glucosamine supplements are sourced from shells of shellfish (crabs, lobster, shrimp, and so on), there isn’t a list of vegetables, fruits, or protein options you can take down on your next grocery list. This is probably another reason glucosamine supplements are the second most popular dietary supplement taken. Additionally, this is why it’s so important to supplement glucosamine in the first place.


Strenuous activity, manual labor, natural aging, and even being simply a little obese can put a lot of additional tension on our joints. In fact, being obese by as low as 5 pounds might put an additional 15-30 pounds of additional force on your knees. To counteract the issues of joint wear and tear, to keep your body in motion, to keep you active and versatile, Flex assists lubricate active joints, nurtures and strengthens connective tissues, and helps reduce joint inflammation connected with physical activity.

Flex includes no soy, just needs to be taken once a day, consists of no stimulants like caffeine and green tea, contains no nuts, utilizes vegetarian pills, produced in the U.S., can be handled an empty stomach, is a fantastic choice for post-exercise joint recovery, and can be taken with other Xyngular supplement. Our premium Flex formula of glucosamine and boswellia serrata are among the most efficient duos on the market to support your joints and help in reducing inflammation typically associated with workout. (9 ).

Is it safe?

Side-effects, which are normally mild and irregular, include:.

  • Indigestion
  • Irregularity
  • Diarrhoea
  • Headaches

If you’re allergic to shellfish, you need to make certain that you take the shellfish-free variety.

You must also beware about taking glucosamine if you have diabetes. Glucosamine may increase your blood sugar level and it may mean that you need to adjust your treatment to make sure it continued working. There are numerous reports of interaction between glucosamine and anti-diabetic treatments. There are likewise some reports of possible interaction with chemotherapy drugs and drugs that lower blood cholesterol. (10 ).

What is the most important details I should understand about glucosamine?

Follow all directions on the item label and plan. Inform each of your doctor about all your medical conditions, allergic reactions, and all medications you utilize.

What should I discuss with my doctor prior to taking glucosamine?

You should not use this product if you are allergic to glucosamine.

Ask a physician, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider if it is safe for you to utilize this item if you have:.

  • Diabetes;
  • High cholesterol or triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood);
  • Cancer;
  • Liver disease;
  • Asthma or other breathing disorder;
  • If you dislike shellfish; or
  • If you take a blood thinner (warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven).
  • It is not known whether glucosamine will damage a coming child. Do not use this product without medical advice if you are pregnant.
  • Glucosamine may enter breast milk and may damage a nursing child. Do not utilize this item without medical recommendations if you are breast-feeding an infant.
  • Do not give any herbal/health supplement to a child without medical suggestions.

How should I take glucosamine?

When considering using herbal supplements, seek the advice of your physician. You might also think about consulting a professional who is trained in the use of herbal/health supplements.

If you select to utilize glucosamine, utilize it as directed on the bundle or as directed by your medical professional, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider. Do not utilize more of this item than is suggested on the label.

Do not use different formulas of glucosamine at the same time without medical recommendations. Using different solutions together increases the danger of an overdose of glucosamine.

This medication can trigger unusual outcomes with a blood glucose (sugar) test. Do not use this product without a medical professional’s suggestions if you are diabetic.

If you require surgical treatment, tell the surgeon ahead of time that you are utilizing glucosamine. You might require to stop using the medicine for a short time.

It might take up to 8 weeks prior to your signs improve. For best outcomes, keep using glucosamine as directed.Call your doctor if your signs do not improve, or if they get worse while utilizing glucosamine. Shop at room temperature level away from wetness and heat.

What happens if I miss a dosage?

Avoid the missed dosage if it is practically time for your next set up dosage. Do not use additional glucosamine to make up the missed dose.

What should I prevent while taking glucosamine?

Some glucosamine products likewise include manganese. Taking excessive of this mix can trigger a manganese overdose. Do not take more than directed on the medicine label.

What other drugs will impact glucosamine?

Other drugs might connect with glucosamine, including prescription and over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and natural products. Inform each of your health care companies about all medicines you utilize now and any medicine you start or stop utilizing.

Where can I get more details?

Talk to a licensed healthcare professional before utilizing any herbal/health supplement. Whether you are treated by a medical doctor or a professional trained in using natural medicines/supplements, make sure all your healthcare providers know about all of your medical conditions and treatments. (11 ).

Unique Preventative Measures and Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn’t sufficient dependable info to know if glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and prevent usage.

Asthma: Glucosamine might make asthma worse. Until more is known, people with asthma need to be cautious about taking items which contain glucosamine.

Diabetes: There utilized to be some concern that glucosamine might increase blood sugar level levels. However the majority of research study reveals that glucosamine doesn’t increase blood sugar level levels in people with diabetes.

Glaucoma: Glucosamine might increase the pressure inside the eye and might worsen glaucoma. If you have glaucoma, speak with your doctor before taking glucosamine.

High cholesterol: There used to be some issue that glucosamine might increase cholesterol levels. However a lot of research study reveals that glucosamine doesn’t seem to increase cholesterol levels.

High blood pressure: There used to be some issue that glucosamine may increase blood pressure. However most research study reveals that glucosamine does not appear to increase high blood pressure.

Shellfish allergic reaction: Glucosamine is produced from the shells of shrimp, lobster, and crabs. If you have a shellfish allergy, talk to your doctor prior to using glucosamine.


Significant Interaction

Do not take this mix.

Warfarin (Coumadin) interacts with GLUCOSAMINE

Warfarin is used to slow blood clot. Taking glucosamine with or without chondroitin increases the impacts of warfarin. This can increase the danger for serious bruising and bleeding. Do not take glucosamine if you are taking warfarin.

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination.

Medications for cancer (Topoisomerase II Inhibitors) engages with GLUCOSAMINE

Some medications for cancer work by reducing how fast cancer cells can copy themselves. Glucosamine might obstruct these medications from working. Taking glucosamine together with some medications for cancer might reduce the effectiveness of these medications.

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this mix.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) interacts with GLUCOSAMINE

Taking glucosamine SULFATE and acetaminophen together may impact how well each works. However more info is needed to know if this interaction is a big issue.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) connects with GLUCOSAMINE

Glucosamine may increase blood sugar levels. Taking glucosamine in addition to diabetes medications might minimize the effects of these medications. Screen your blood sugar carefully. (12 ).


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