A seasonal Eurasian herb (Foeniculum vulgare) that has clusters of small yellow flowers and aromatic leaves and seeds and consists of several cultivated forms. [1]

General History of Fennel

Fennel history dates back to Pliny (AD 23-79), the Roman author of The Naturalis Historie. He thought that snakes consumed and rubbed against fennel because it was able to improve their eyesight after shedding their skins. Following that observation, Pliny thought fennel was so powerful that he used the aromatic herb to deal with 22 various disorders.

In our fennel history timeline, we pertain to the 1300s. We know that fennel was a staple in the home of King Edward I of England. His wardrobe account books from 1281 listed a purchase of 8 1/2 pounds of fennel seed– a month’s supply. Why a lot? Fennel seed was used as a condiment and a cravings suppressant. On Church mandated ‘Fastying dayes’, the faithful utilized fennel to get through the day, a tradition gave the United States by the Puritans. They would bring scarfs with fennel seed to nibble on throughout long services to ward off cravings; which resulted in fennel seeds typically being referred to as ‘meetin’ seeds’.

During middle ages times, fiends were believed to wander easily as the sun turned southwards. Fennel, when hung over doorways, was thought to protect those within from the spirits. Fennel seeds inserted into keyholes were thought to protect a dwelling from ghosts on any night however especially Midsummer’s Eve.

Fennel History– Medicinal Uses

Hippocrates (yes, he’s the fellow the physician’s oath is named for) suggested fennel could assist wet nurses to increase their milk supply.

One doctor from the thirteenth century noted in the Book of Physicians of Myddvai “he who sees fennel and collects it not, is not a guy however a devil.” A contrary opinion caused the standard saying that “sowing fennel is sowing sorrow” that anticipated disaster to anybody distributing fennel. In the mid 15th Century, it was stated of fennel …” The juice of fenell put into a mans eares, killeth the wormes therein.”.

When steeped into a tea it was thought that fennel was also a treatment for reducing weight. The Greeks called it Marathron which is originated from a word meaning to grow thin.

History of Fennel as an Antidote.

Fennel is frequently utilized with preparing fish. In the mid 1600s, one kept in mind doctor, Nicholas Culpepper, approved of it’s usage mentioning, “it consumes that phlegmatic humour, which fish most plentifully afford and irritate the body with, though couple of that utilize it understand wherefore they do it; I expect the reason for its benefit by doing this is due to the fact that it is an herb of Mercury and under Virgo, and therefore bears antipathy to Pisces.” Fennel was used as a remedy to toxins by the Romans, Chinese, and Hindus. Culpepper also thought fennel to be an efficient antidote for poisonous mushrooms and snake bites. A plaster of fennel roots was a conventional treatment for the bites of mad canines.

In a publication from the late 1880s, Alphonse Karr, for whom the dahlia was named, tried to put claims of fennel’s healing homes to rest with his announcement, “At the end of three or four hundred years, it started to be viewed that it (fennel) had never ever treated anybody.” [2]

Nutrition Facts

The following nutrition information is supplied by the USDA for 1 cup (87g) of sliced fennel.

  • Calories: 27
  • Fat: 0.2 g
  • Sodium: 45mg
  • Carbohydrates: 6.3 g
  • Fiber: 2.7 g
  • Sugars: 3.4 g
  • Protein: 1.1 g
  • Carbs

Half of the carbohydrates in fennel originated from fiber and half come from naturally-occurring sugars. The glycemic index of fennel is 16, making it a very low glycemic food.


There is really little fat in raw fennel. Cooked fennel likewise supplies hardly any fat aside from what’s included while cooking. Although fennel is not a major factor to total fat intake, the fat it does include is comprised of a large range of fatty acids. The fats in fennel are largely polyunsaturated (and heart-healthy).


Fennel is not a high protein food, however you will get a little, 1 gram boost of protein if you take in a complete cup serving.

Vitamins & Minerals

Fennel is a good source of potassium, phosphorus, and calcium. When it concerns vitamins, fennel is greatest in vitamin C and folate. Fennel likewise offers important minerals like manganese, chromium, copper, iron, and zinc.


Fennel is grown in a couple of different varieties. Florence fennel is the most common type you’ll find in the grocery store. The stalks on Florence fennel are short and green (like celery) with dark green, feathery fronds. The bulb is cream-colored and round. A smaller sized, more tender variation of Florence fennel is called baby fennel or young fennel. Wild fennel, on the other hand, has numerous feathery leaves and a smaller sized, flatter bulb. You ‘d be most likely to discover young fennel or wild fennel at boutique and farmer’s markets.

Fennel seeds are likewise edible and utilized to include flavor to dishes. Fennel seeds are derived from a bulb-free range of fennel called typical fennel. Common fennel is grown exclusively for harvesting the seeds.

Storage and Food Security

Choose fennel with firm, intact bulbs that are devoid of brown spots. The stalks should be straight and reasonably close together. Flowers on the stalks of fennel are a sign that it is overripe.

The very same general food safety standards must be applied to fennel as other vegetables. Wash fennel thoroughly under running water to eliminate dirt and germs before cutting into it. As soon as cut, fennel needs to be kept cold in the refrigerator and consumed within a couple of days. Prepared fennel dishes should likewise be cooled and eaten within 5 days.

How to Prepare

Use fennel in recipes to include a tasty sweet taste to foods, both prepared and raw. Fennel pairs well with seafood and is often used in roasting fish dishes, such as salmon or cod. It’s also a favorite in salads for additional texture and taste. Fennel’s slightly sweet anise-flavor can be softened by slicing the bulb extremely thinly and soaking in ice water for a few minutes. Although the white bulb of fennel is most frequently consumed, the stalks, seeds, and leaves are likewise edible. [3]

15 Remarkable Advantages Of Fennel

Let us take a look at the leading health benefits of fennel in detail:.

Potentially Rich source of Vitamin C

One cup of fennel bulb is known to contain practically 20 percent of the everyday requirement of vitamin C, making it rather a rich source of this useful vitamin of our diet plan. Vitamin C improves basic immune system health, produces and repairs skin tissues, assists form collagen, and secures the capillary walls as an antioxidant against the damaging effects of totally free radicals that can often cause heart problem.

May Help Avoid Anemia

Iron and histidine, an amino acid discovered in fennel, are both useful in the treatment of anemia. Whereas iron is the chief constituent of hemoglobin, histidine stimulates the production of hemoglobin and also assists in the development of various other elements of the blood.

May Relieve Indigestion

It is a typical practice, especially in the Indian Subcontinent, to chew fennel seeds after meals. This has been provided for several years as it is believed to facilitate digestion and to get rid of foul breath.

A few of the elements in the fennel necessary oil are most likely the stimulants as they motivate secretion of gastrointestinal and gastric juices, minimize inflammation in the stomach and intestinal tracts, and facilitate correct absorption of nutrients from the food. Additionally, it can eliminate irregularity and safeguard the body from a vast array of digestive tract problems that can originate from being blocked up. It likewise has anti-acidic (standard) residential or commercial properties and is extensively utilized in antacid preparations. In culinary applications, it is likewise utilized as the main ingredient in many appetisers.

May Reduce Flatulence

Fennel is very popular as an antiflatulent, due to the carminative properties of the aspartic acid found in it. Its extract can be used by lots of, from infants to the senior, as a method to decrease flatulence and to expel excess gas from the stomach. It is frequently used in medications to reduce symptoms of non-ulcer dyspepsia and flatulence in infants and young children.

Might Reward Irregularity

Fennel seeds, particularly in powdered form, are thought to serve as a possible laxative, particularly in Ayurvedic medication. The roughage assists clear the bowels, whereas its revitalizing result helps keep the proper peristaltic motion of the intestines, therefore assisting promote excretion. Fennel is likewise commonly discovered in medicines that deal with abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and other digestive tract concerns.

May Reduce Heart Diseases

Fennel can be a terrific source of fiber, as pointed out above, but besides the advantages to digestion that fiber offers, it likewise assists keep healthy levels of cholesterol in the blood stream, according to research conducted, in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. This means that it can stimulate the removal of damaging LDL or bad cholesterol, which is a significant factor in heart problem, atherosclerosis, and strokes.

May Have Anticancer Potential

The raw veggie itself hasn’t been thoroughly studied with regards to cancer protection. Nevertheless but the fennel seed extract has been explored a bit more, and the findings of one study concerning cancer security were quite impressive. It shows that, in animal subjects, the extract can not only prevent the growth of tumors, thanks to its concentrations of flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenols, but it even has the possible to be chemoprotective versus the damaging impacts of radiation during cancer treatment. According to the same study, fennel seed extract exhibits anticancer potential against breast cancer and liver cancer.

May Manage High Blood Pressure

Fennel is a really abundant source of potassium, which can be a vital nutrient in our bodies and is essential for a number of important procedures according to a report published in the Journal of High blood pressure. Among the characteristics of potassium is its quality as a vasodilator, which suggests that it relaxes the tension of capillary, thus lowering blood pressure. Hypertension is linked to a wide range of health concerns, consisting of cardiac arrest, stroke, and atherosclerosis. Also, for diabetics, blood pressure concerns can make the management of their insulin and glucose levels really challenging and can be the cause of lots of possibly lethal complications. Incorporating a cup of fennel bulb in your everyday diet can increase your potassium levels and all the benefits that come along with it.

May Improve Brain Function

Potassium, found in high levels in fennel bulbs and seeds, is an electrolyte, which means that it can assist in increased electrical conduction throughout the body. This is according to research released in the Yale University School of Medication in 1939. This consists of connections within the brain, which is a genuine switchboard of electrical currents. Potassium can assist increase brain function and cognitive capabilities through this quality. Likewise, fennel is a vasodilator, which suggests more oxygen reaches the brain and neural activity can work at ideal performance.

Perhaps Reliable Diarrhea Treatment

Fennel is valuable in curing diarrhea caused by bacterial infections, as it might have some elements such as anethol and cineole which may have disinfectant and anti-bacterial properties. Some amino acids, such as histidine, can aid in food digestion and the correct performance of the digestion system, thereby helping to eliminate diarrhea due to indigestion. Fennel has long been utilized by native cultures as a method to eliminate diarrhea.

May Alleviate Manifestations of Colic

There are studies that suggest that natural tea used numerous herbs consisting of fennel and fennel oil has the possible to alleviate signs of colic. Fennel has certain antispasmodic qualities which also help it unwind muscles and minimize the discomfort associated with the colic. Polymeric and heavy particles are useful in the treatment of renal colic. Such polymers, likewise called phytoestrogens, are found in anethole, a component of the fennel essential oil. However, more scientific research study is needed to investigate the advantages and effects on human beings.

Might Increase Immunity

Fennel being abundant in many nutrients consisting of vitamin C helps improve the body immune system and protects the body against infections and damage brought on by totally free radicals.

Might Regulate Menstruation

Fennel is likewise an emmenagogue, suggesting that it is thought to reduce and manage menstruation by effectively controling hormonal action in the body. Furthermore, fennel is utilized in a variety of customer items to reduce the results of PMS, and it is likewise used generally as a calming painkiller and unwinding agent for menopausal females.

May Help in Eye Care

Including fennel into meals can help secure the eyes from inflammation, in addition to help in reducing conditions related to premature aging and macular degeneration. This is due to the abundance of anti-oxidants (vitamin C and amino acids like arginine are really advantageous for renewal of tissues and the avoidance of aging), detoxifiers, and stimulants. They are specifically discovered in fennel vital oil, in addition to minerals like cobalt and magnesium. Lastly, the juice of its leaves and the plant itself can be externally applied to the eyes to minimize irritation and eye tiredness.

Fennel is also a rich source of flavonoids, which are really useful in securing against pigment cells dying due to oxidative-stress-induced death. By protecting against this destruction of the pigment cells, fennel can safely be classified as reliable in eye health for many factors.

May Treat Respiratory Conditions

Fennel works in breathing disorders such as congestion, bronchitis, and cough due to the existence of cineole and anethole, which are expectorant in nature, amongst their lots of other virtues. Fennel seeds and powder can help break up phlegm and prompt loosening of the toxins and buildup of the throat and nasal passages for removal from the body to guarantee fast healing from breathing conditions.

Other Benefits & Uses

Fennel is a diuretic, which suggests that it can increase the quantity and frequency of urination, therefore assisting the removal of poisonous substances from the body and assisting in rheumatism and swelling. It is likewise promoted as increasing the production and secretion of milk in lactating moms; considering that this milk includes some homes of fennel, it is an anti-flatulent for the infant, as well. It reinforces hair, prevents hair loss, unwinds the body, sharpens memory, and has a magnificent cooling effect in summertime. This can be achieved if the pale, greenish-yellow water, in which it is soaked, is consumed with a little bit of sugar and black salt.

Words of Care: You need to bear in mind that often, too much of anything is hazardous. Particular elements of the fennel important oil such as anethol, and a couple of other chemicals present in the plant itself can be unsafe if ingested in too big a quantity. You should bear in mind that the compounds which can eliminate bacteria and microorganisms in low dosages can be hazardous to you too. Excess use of fennel can cause difficulty breathing, increased palpitations, irregular heart beat, and different neural issues. So, delight in fennel’s remarkable benefits in moderation. If you have any questions, talk to a health care specialist. [4]

How Can I Utilize It?

If you’re using raw fennel in a salad, attempt making thin ribbons with a peeler or shaving it on a box grater. You can likewise run each half of the bulb over a mandoline. Here are a couple of fennel salads to attempt:.

Blended Lettuce, Fennel & & Orange Salad with Black Olive Vinaigrette: The sweet taste of fennel plays well with the salty olives, and the intense citrus brings all of it together.

Tomato & & Fennel Salad: Peak summertime tomatoes pair well with fennel’s distinctive licorice flavor in this bright salad.

Fennel & & Grapefruit Salad (pictured above): Fennel’s heartiness makes it a fantastic option for winter season salads like this one with grapefruit.

Roasted Fennel & & Farro Salad: This rewarding salad would work well for either a celebration or as a bring-to-work lunch choice, considering that it can be made up to two days ahead. The fennel is tossed with olive oil and then roasted with bell peppers.

Apple & & Fennel Salad with Blue Cheese: In addition to thinly sliced fennel bulb, this salad has a quarter-cup of fennel leaves mixed in for additional flavor.

Seared Salmon with Sugar Snap-Fennel Slaw: Sliced fennel and sugar snap peas get mixed together for a fresh take on coleslaw. Marinating the slaw briefly in vinaigrette (while the salmon is cooking) helps soften the raw fennel’s fibrous texture.

How to Prepare Fennel

The recipes listed below prove that both fennel bulbs and leaves can be used in a variety of ways.

Broiled Fennel with Parmesan Cheese (visualized above): In this simple 15-minute side, fennel’s sweet flavor is matched by nutty, salty Parmesan cheese.

Braised Fennel with Tomatoes & & Potatoes: Braising fennel assists soften it and extract its sweetness. In this recipe, the addition of Pernod (an anise-flavored liqueur) and fennel seed offers the completed dish a more intricate flavor.

Roast Chicken & & Fennel: Trying to eat a variety of veggies? Instead of classic roast chicken and potatoes, try this variation with fennel. The diced bulb is first roasted on its own prior to it’s integrated with pine nuts and browned chicken drumsticks for a second turn in the oven.

Mediterranean Sautéed Shrimp & & Fennel: The fennel is first sautéed and combined with canned tomatoes, and then quick-cooking shrimp are included towards the end. Although the addition of feta and capers offer this dish an advanced feel, it’s easy to gather on a hectic weeknight.

Fennel & & Pork Stew: In this hearty stew, fennel and onions develop a bed for juicy, slow-cooked pork. The leaves are scheduled and used as a garnish.

Fennel & & Chicken Flatbread: Fennel is utilized two methods on this flatbread. The bulb is sautéed with chicken and used as a topping, and the fronds are sprayed on at the end. [5]

Intriguing realities about fennel

Fennel is a blooming plant types in the carrot household.

It is grown for its edible bulbs, shoots, leaves, and seeds.

Fennel is native to southern Europe and Asia Minor.

Today, it is cultivated in temperate regions around the world and is thought about an intrusive types in Australia and parts of the United States.

The cultivated plant depends on 2.5 metres (8 ft) high, with hollow stems.

The leaves mature to 40 centimetres (16 in) long. It is made up of many direct or awl-shaped sections.

The flowers are produced in terminal substance umbels from 5to 15 centimetres (2 to 6 in) large, each umbel section having 20– 50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels.

The little dry fruits are greenish brown to yellow-colored brown elongate ovals about 6 mm (0.25 inch) long with five prominent longitudinal dorsal ridges.

The seeds include 3 to 4 percent essential oil; the primary components are anethole and fenchone.

All parts of the plant are fragrant and utilized in flavouring, and the bulblike stem base of Florence fennel and the blanched shoots are consumed as a veggie.

The seeds and drawn out oil are suggestive of anise in fragrance and taste and are used for scenting soaps and perfumes and for flavouring sweets, liqueurs, medications, and foods, particularly pastries, sweet pickles, and fish.

There are 345 calories in 100 grams (3.5 ounces) of fennel fruits.

It is an abundant source of protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins and numerous dietary minerals, particularly calcium, iron, magnesium and manganese.

Fennel is crispy and slightly sweet, adding a rejuvenating contribution to the ever popular Mediterranean food.

Usually connected with Italian cooking, make sure to include this to your selection of fresh vegetables from the fall through early spring when it is easily available and at its finest.

It is called marathon in Greece, a name derived from the word maraino, suggesting to grow thin.

Fennel was presented to The United States and Canada by Spanish missionaries for cultivation in their medicinal gardens. Fennel left cultivation from the objective gardens, and is now known in California as wild anise.

Fennel was suggested as an herb for weight reduction, “to make individuals more lean that are too fat,” according to the seventeenth century herbalist and astrologer Nicholas Culpeper.

In Chinese and Hindu cultures fennel was consumed to speed the elimination of toxins from the system, especially after snakebite and scorpion stings.

As one of the ancient Saxon people’s nine sacred herbs, fennel was credited with the power to cure what were then believed to be the 9 reasons for disease.

Fennel was also valued as a magic herb. In the Middle Ages it was draped over doorways on Midsummer’s Eve to safeguard the home from evil spirits. As an included measure of defense, the tiny seeds were packed into keyholes to keep ghosts from going into the space.

Fennel is one of the primary active ingredients of absinthe, an alcoholic mix which came from as a medical elixir in Switzerland and became, by the late 19th century, a popular alcohol in France and other nations.

The word “fennel” established from Middle English fenel or fenyl. This came from Old English fenol or finol, which in turn originated from Latin feniculum or foeniculum, the diminutive of fenum or faenum, implying “hay”.

Dill, coriander, and caraway are similar-looking herbs, but shorter-growing than fennel, reaching only 40– 60 cm (16– 24 in).

The essential oil, extracted from the seeds, is toxic even in small amounts.

Pregnant females should not use the herb, seeds, tincture, or important oil of fennel in medicinal treatments. [6]

What are negative effects related to utilizing fennel?

Negative effects of Fennel consist of:.

  • difficulty breathing
  • tightness of chest/throat
  • chest discomfort
  • queasiness
  • throwing up
  • hives
  • rash
  • itchy or swollen skin
  • mild boost in menstrual circulation
  • sun level of sensitivity
  • Major negative effects of Fennel include:
  • seizures

This document does not include all possible adverse effects and others may occur. Contact your doctor for extra information about adverse effects.

What other drugs engage with fennel?

If your physician has actually directed you to utilize this medication, your medical professional or pharmacist may already know any possible drug interactions and might be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any medication prior to talking to your doctor, health care provider, or pharmacist first.

Mild Interactions of Fennel include:.

This information does not include all possible interactions or negative results. For that reason, prior to using this item, tell your medical professional or pharmacist of all the items you use. Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share this info with your physician and pharmacist. Consult your healthcare expert or doctor for extra medical suggestions, or if you have health questions, concerns, or for more details about this medication. [7]

Special Preventative Measures and Warnings

  • Pregnancy: Fennel is possibly risky to utilize when pregnant. Routinely utilizing fennel has been linked to preterm birth.
  • Breast-feeding: Fennel is potentially hazardous. There are some reports of breast-feeding infants with damage to their nerve systems after they were exposed to organic tea including fennel through breastmilk.
  • Kids: Fennel is potentially safe when utilized at proper dosages for approximately one week in young babies with colic.
  • Allergy to celery, carrot or mugwort: Fennel may cause an allergic reaction in people who are sensitive to these plants.
  • Bleeding conditions: Fennel may slow blood clot. Taking fennel might increase the risk of bleeding or bruising in people with bleeding disorders.
  • Hormone-sensitive condition such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Fennel might act like estrogen. If you have any condition that might be intensified by estrogen, do not use fennel. [8]
  • Some spices, consisting of coriander, fennel, and caraway, might trigger extreme allergic reactions in some individuals. Those who are allergic to these spices should not eat them.
  • Beta-blockers, a heart problem and anxiety medication, can cause potassium levels to increase in the blood. One 2016 study reported that individuals taking beta-blockers had a 13% greater chanceTrusted Source of developing hyperkalemia, or high blood potassium levels.
  • People taking these medications might wish to discuss their consumption of high-potassium foods such as fennel with their medical professional. Nevertheless, dietary modifications are not typically needed.
  • High potassium levels in the body can posture a severe danger to individuals with kidney damage or kidneys that are not totally functional. Damaged kidneys might be not able to filter excess potassium from the blood, which could be fatal. [9]


This ancient solution is under research study and we are finding out more about the manner ins which fennel can treat and heal our bodies. For most people, fennel tea has prospective to be a safe and effective remedy for everything from gastrointestinal issues to insomnia. Present fennel tea into your routine slowly, making sure to keep in mind of any adverse effects that it seems to produce in your body. [10]


  1. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/fennel
  2. http://www.ourherbgarden.com/herb-history/fennel.html
  3. https://www.verywellfit.com/carb-info-for-fennel-2241773
  4. https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/herbs-and-spices/health-benefits-of-fennel.html
  5. https://www.eatingwell.com/article/7874205/fiber-and-gut-health-protect-your-heart/
  6. http://justfunfacts.com/interesting-facts-about-fennel/
  7. https://www.rxlist.com/consumer_fennel/drugs-condition.htm
  8. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-311/fennel
  9. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/284096#risks
  10. https://www.healthline.com/health/fennel-tea#takeaway
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