A big oval tasty however foul-smelling fruit with an irritable rind. A southeast asian tree (durio zibethinus) of the silk-cotton household that bears durians. [1]


Durian is an evergreen, tropical tree discovered in southeast asia. The distinct fruit has a spiky outer covering and smells of rotten eggs. The fruit, bark, roots, and leaves are used to make medication.

Individuals use durian for fever, hypertension, liver disease, and lots of other conditions, however there is no good clinical proof to support these uses. [2]


Durian was thought to be from the region of borneo and sumatra, they grew wild along the malay peninsula, and was commonly cultivated in a large area from india to new guinea.

400 years ago, it was traded throughout present-day myanmar, and was actively cultivated especially in thailand and south vietnam.

The earliest known european reference to the durian is the record of niccolò da conti, who travelled to southeastern asia in the 15th century. The portuguese physician garcia de orta also explained durians in an article that he released in 1563.

In 1741, the german botanist georg eberhard rumphius published a book, which offer in-depth and precise account of durians for over a century.

During the early stages of its taxonomical research study, there was some confusion between durian and the soursop, for both of these types had thorny green fruit. It is also fascinating to keep in mind the malay name for the soursop is durian belanda, suggesting dutch durian.

In the 18th century, johann anton weinmann considered the durian to belong to castaneae as its fruit was similar to the horse chestnut.

Durian had actually also been planted in the americas but restricted to botanical gardens. The first seedlings were sent out from the royal botanic gardens, kew, to auguste saint-arroman of dominica in 1884.

In southeastern asia, the durian has been cultivated for centuries at the town level, probably considering that the late 18th century, and commercially since the mid-20th century.

In my tropic island, australian author and naturalist edmund james banfield tells how, in the early 20th century, a good friend in singapore sent him a durian seed, which he planted and took care of on his tropical island off the north coast of queensland.

Since the early 1990s, the domestic and worldwide demand for durian in the association of southeast asian nations (asean) area has actually increased significantly, partially due to the increasing affluence of asia. [3]


The durian tree, reaching 90 to 130 feet (27-40 m) in height in tropical forests, is typically put up with short, directly, rough, peeling trunk to 4 feet (1.2 m) in size, and irregular dense or open crown of rough branches, and thin branchlets covered with coppery or gray scales when young. The evergreen, alternate leaves are oblong-lance-olate, or elliptic-obovate, rounded at the base, quickly pointed at the peak; leathery, dark-green and shiny above, silvery or pale-yellow, and largely covered with gray or reddish-brown, hairy scales on the underside; 2 1/2 to 10 in (6.25-25 cm) long, 1 to 3 1/2 in (2.5-9 cm) wide. Malodorous, whitish to golden-brown, 3-petalled flowers, 2 to 3 in (5-7.5 cm) broad, with 5-lobed, bell-shaped calyx, are borne in pendant clusters of 3 to 30 straight from the old, thick branches or trunk.

The fruits are ovoid or ovoid-oblong to nearly round, 6 to 12 in (15-30 cm) long, 5 to 6 in (12.5-15 cm) large, and up to 18 pounds (8 kg) in weight. The yellow or yellowish-green rind is thick, tough, semi-woody, and largely set with stout, greatly pointed spinal columns, 3- to 7-sided at the base. Managing without gloves can be agonizing. Inside there are 5 compartments including the creamy-white, yellow-colored, pinkish or orange-colored flesh and 1 to 7 chestnut-like seeds, 3/4 to 2 1/4 in (2-6 cm) long with glossy, red-brown seed coat. In the best fruits, the majority of seeds are abortive. There are some odor free cultivars however the flesh of the typical durian has an effective odor which advised the plant explorer, otis w. Barrett, of combined cheese, decayed onion and turpentine, or “garlic, limburger cheese and some spicy sort of resin” however he said that after consuming a little bit of the pulp “the odor is scarcely noticed.” the nature of the flesh is more complex-in the words of alfred russel wallace (much-quoted), it is “an abundant custard highly flavored with almonds … But there are occasional wafts of flavor that call to mind cream cheese, onion-sauce, sherry wine and other incongruous dishes. Then there is an abundant glutinous smoothness in the pulp which absolutely nothing else possesses, but which contributes to its delicacy. It is neither acid, nor sweet, nor juicy; yet it wants none of these qualities, for it is in itself perfect. It produces no nausea or other bad effect, and the more you consume of it the less you feel likely to stop.”. Barrett explained the flavor as “triplex in effect, first a strong fragrant taste, followed by a scrumptious sweet taste, then a weird resinous or balsam-like taste of exquisite but persistent savor.” an american chemist working at the u.s. Rubber plantations in sumatra in modem times, was at first hesitant to attempt eating durian, was finally encouraged and became passionate, stating it to be “definitely delicious”, something like “a concoction of ice cream, onions, spices, and bananas, all blended together.”.

Some fruits divided into 5 sectors, others do not split, however all fall to the ground when fully grown. [4]


Durio sensu lato has 30 recognized species. Durio sensu stricto comprises 24 of these species. The 6 extra types consisted of in durio s.l. Are now considered by some to comprise their own genus, boschia. Durio s.s. And boschia have identical vegetative characteristics and lots of shared floral qualities. The important distinction in between the two is that anther locules open by apical pores in boschia and by longitudinal slits in durio s.s. These two genera form a clade that is sibling to another.

Genus in the people durioneae, cullenia. These three genera together form a clade that is characterised by highly modified (mono- and polythecate, instead of bithecate) anthers.

The genus durio is put by some taxonomists in the family bombacaceae, or by others in a broadly specified malvaceae that consists of bombacaceae, and by others in a smaller sized household of simply 7 genera durionaceae.

Durio is typically included in bombacaceae because of the existence of monothecate anthers, as opposed to the bithecate anthers common to the remainder of the mallows (and angiosperms, in general). Nevertheless, the very first research studies to take a look at mallow phylogeny using molecular data found that the tribe durioneae ought to be placed in the subfamily helicteroideae of an expanded malvaceae. The authors of these research studies hypothesise that monothecate anthers have more than likely progressed convergently in durioneae and in the malvatheca clade (consisting of malvaceae s.l. Subfamilies malvoideae and bombacoideae).

A draft genome analysis of durian indicates it has about 46,000 coding and non-coding genes, among which a class called methionine gamma-lyases– which control the smell of organosulfur substances– may be primarily responsible for the distinct durian odour. Genome analysis also showed that the closest plant relative of durian is cotton. [4]


Durio zibethnus is primarily dispersed in southeast asia. Traditional chinese medicine believes that durian shells have the results of clearing heat and purging fire, nourishing yin and hydrating dryness. Therefore, it is often used as a pharmaceutic food in the chinese folk to help treating illness. At present, the chemical constituents separated from durian shell consist of phenolic acids, phenolic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, triterpenes, easy glycosides and other compounds. Modern pharmacological studies reveal that durian shell has numerous pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, policy of glucose and lipid metabolic process. The chemical structure and pharmacological results of durian shells are summed up in order to provide references for the additional research and application of durian shell. [5]


Much variation takes place in seedlings. There are over 300 named varieties of durian in thailand. Only a few of these remain in industrial cultivation. In malaysia, 100 types are graded for size and quality. In peninsular malaya, there are 44 clones with little distinctions in time and extent of blooming, flower and fruit morphology, efficiency and edible quality. [6]

One of the most nutritious fruits

Durian is extremely high in nutrients compared to most other fruits.

One cup (243 grams) of pulp provides:.

  • Calories: 357
  • Fat: 13 grams
  • Carbohydrates: 66 grams
  • Fiber: 9 grams
  • Protein: 4 grams
  • Vitamin c: 80% of the everyday value (dv)
  • Thiamine: 61% of the dv
  • Manganese: 39% of the dv
  • Vitamin b6: 38% of the dv
  • Potassium: 30% of the dv
  • Riboflavin: 29% of the dv
  • Copper: 25% of the dv
  • Folate: 22% of the dv
  • Magnesium: 18% of the dv
  • Niacin: 13% of the dv

This nutrient profile makes durian among the most nutritious fruits worldwide.

It’s also rich in healthy plant compounds, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, polyphenols, and flavonoids. A number of these function as antioxidants.


Durian is a really healthy fruit that’s rich in fiber, b vitamins, vitamin c, and different healthy plant substances. [7]

Durian fruit benefits for health

Improves digestive health

The dietary fibre in durian helps in alleviating bowel movement. This, in turn, helps avoid constipation and improves digestion health. The thiamin in the fruit might improve cravings and basic well-being in the elderly. The fiber in durian fruit likewise promotes peristaltic motion reducing the gastrointestinal procedure in the intestines. It likewise assists treat concerns like bloating, excess flatulence, heartburn.

Prevents cardiovascular diseases

The organosulfur in durians might regulate the inflammatory enzymes and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Many research studies have discovered that consumption of fruits that are rich in soluble dietary fiber may assist lower the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ldl-c) and reduce the danger of coronary heart problem. Durian fruit is a heart-friendly food with high fiber content.

Maintains blood glucose levels

The manganese in durian might assist in the maintenance of blood sugar levels. The intake of durian likewise improves the insulin action in clients with diabetes. The antioxidants in durian also help in reducing oxidative stress, which can otherwise intensify diabetes symptoms. Durian is a terrific fruit, being a healthy food with a low glycemic index (gi). For this reason, the fruit would not cause blood sugar level spikes.

Regulates high blood pressure levels

Durian is a good source of potassium. Research shows that increasing potassium intake can lower blood pressure levels. The potassium in the fruit likewise works as a vasodilator. It can assist keep the balance between fluid and salt in the body’s cells. The mineral may help reduce tension on the capillary and decrease the risk of heart attack or stroke.

Helps in weight gain

Consuming durian fruit on a routine and moderate basis is extremely advantageous for the individuals who would like to get some extra pounds without the inclusion of false calories in their diet. This benefit of durian fruit is mainly because of the high calories in them. Consuming 100 grams of durian offers around 147 calories of energy. It is also an excellent source of carbohydrates that launch energy into the system at a steady rate and provides us with the energy needed for our everyday activity. It is rich in healthy fats which supports our health and also aids in weight gain.

Bolsters immunity and metabolic process

Our body immune system is the defence mechanism of our body that plays an important role in keeping us healthy. It is the defense mechanism of our body that prevents disease-causing microorganisms such as germs, virus, and fungi, etc. From entering our body and make us ill. It is very important to increase the immune system and durian fruit can help in doing the very same. Consuming durian fruit on a regular and moderate basis is very advantageous for enhancing our body immune system. This advantage of durian fruit is primarily because of the presence of vitamin c.

Lowers cancer threat

Durians are said to possess antioxidant homes that may help reduce cancer risk. The fruit contains polyphenols that prevent cancer development and even eliminate cancer cells. Free radicals are understood to ruin healthy cells and cause the spread of cancer. Because the antioxidants of durians battle free radicals, they might also assist in reducing cancer risk.

Reinforces bones and joints

Durian fruits are abundant in calcium, potassium and magnesium. These minerals add to bone health by increasing bone density, enhancing joint versatility and enhancing the tensile strength of collagen fibers. Routine intake of durian fruit in measured quantities with diet plan promotes bone mineral density in men and women.

Remedies anemia

Durian is an abundant source of iron and folate. Research studies connect iron and folate deficiency to anemia. Folate, if not present in adequate quantities, might reduce the number of red blood cells produced. This, in turn, can trigger anemia. Other minerals in durian likewise activate the production of red blood cells in the body, thus helping in the transportation of nutrients and fluids to all organs in the system.

Treats sleeping disorders

Eating durian fruit may treat insomnia. This advantage of durian fruit is because of the existence of tryptophan in it. Tryptophan is an important amino acid that converts to serotonin in our brain and causes a sensation of relaxation and happiness. It likewise helps in releasing melatonin in our bloodstream. Melatonin is a hormone that makes us feel exhausted and drowsy and thus helps in curing sleeping disorders. Furthermore, other substances such as vitamin b complex, calcium, and iron, etc. Likewise play a considerable function in ensuring a good night’s sleep.

Natural aphrodisiac

Durians are an aphrodisiac, working for improving sexual health. It enhances libido and rejuvenates the sexual life. This advantage of durian is mainly because of the nutritional substances like vitamin b6 and potassium in it. Potassium is a natural vasodilator that relaxes blood vessels and improves blood circulation. It also helps with erectile dysfunction. Vitamin b6 also plays a substantial function in enhancing blood circulation and thus promotes sexual health.

Anti-depressant residential or commercial properties

Consuming durian fruit on a regular and moderate basis is very helpful for combating versus the depression. This benefit of durian fruit is generally because of the presence of vitamin b6 in it. Vitamin b6 is a necessary nutrient that increases the production of serotonin in our system. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter produced by the afferent neuron and is mainly discovered in the gastrointestinal system as well as blood platelets and throughout the central nervous system. It performs lots of functions such as reduces depression, decreases anxiety, consequently uplifting state of mind and improving memory and concentration. [8]

Durian benefits for skin

Following are the major beauty benefits of durian for the skin.

Lower indications of premature aging

The rich healthy profile of durian assists in preserving our skin health.

Anti-oxidants like vitamin c, vitamin a, and other pertinent substances in durian safeguard the skin cells from totally free radical damage and minimize fine lines, wrinkles, age areas, dark spots, skin imperfections, and other indications of premature aging.

Vitamin c boosts collagen production.

Collagen is an amino acid that keeps skin flexibility and prevents saggy skin and wrinkles.

Zinc, vitamin e, and other nutrients in durian likewise assist in keeping skin healthy.

Treats skin pigmentation

Anti-oxidants in durian safeguard our skin from complimentary extreme damage and draw out natural radiance of the skin.

It enhances collagen production, keep skin elasticity and increase skin smoothness.

Vitamins and minerals in durian fruit provide nourishment to skin and improve skin tone.

Decrease skin problems

Durian lower the danger of skin issues like acne and pimples.

Acne is a common skin condition that generally happens due to the blocking of skin pores by contaminants, contaminants, and other impurities.

The detoxifying substances like vitamin c and dietary fibers in durian get rid of toxins, toxins and other pollutants from our system.

When there are less toxins, they are less most likely to collect in the skin pores and minimize the threat of skin problems like acne and pimples.

Dietary fibers regulate the secretion of excess oil from the sebaceous gland of the skin and prevent the worsening of acne.

Protection from hazardous uv rays of sun

Extended direct exposure to the hazardous uv rays of the sun might damage our skin and cause wrinkles, leatherlike skin, liver spots, and other indications of early aging.

Uv rays can harm our skin and increase the threat of infections and cancers.

Anti-oxidants in durian secures our skin from oxidative tension caused by uv rays of the sun, and lower the threat of infections and cancers.

Keeps our skin hydrated

Durian contain about 65 percent water and help in staying hydrated.

Remaining hydrated is necessary for our skin health as water invigorates our skin, keeps it moisturized, boost skin softness and smoothness.

It prevents dryness and dullness of the skin.

And, durians are abundant in vitamins and minerals that nourish our skin and provide additional advantages to the skin.

Maintains skin health

Durian maintains our skin health due to the abundance of nutrients like vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants, and dietary fibers, and so on.

Antioxidants protect our skin from complimentary extreme damage and keep signs of early aging such as fine lines, wrinkles, age areas, etc at bay.

Dietary fibers in durian prevent our skin pores from getting blocked by toxic substances and pollutants, and reduce risk of skin issues like acne and pimples.

Durian draws out the natural radiance of the skin, and make our skin soft, supple, and glowing.

It helps in getting rid of dead skin cells and encourages the development of new skin cells.

Other nutrients like b vitamins and zinc play an important function in keeping skin healthy.

Durian benefits for hair

Some major appeal advantages of durian for hair are as follows.

Promotes hair growth

Durian benefit our hair and scalp, and encourages the development of brand-new hair.

Anti-oxidants like vitamin c, vitamin e, and other relevant substances in durian safeguard our hair and scalp from totally free extreme damage.

This decrease premature greying of hair, hair fall, split ends, and hair dryness.

Vitamins and minerals in durian provide nourishment to our hair and enhance them.

Zinc and b vitamins in durian motivates the growth of new hair.

Decreases loss of hair

Durian make our hair stronger and reduce threat of hair fall.

Minerals and vitamins in durian nurtures our hair roots and make them strong and lustrous.

Anti-oxidants secure the hair from ill effects of oxidative tension.

When our hair is strong, threat of hair issues like hair fall, hair dryness reduces by a significant level.

Iron, zinc and b vitamins in durian plays an important function in lowering hair fall threat.

Make our hair strong and lustrous

Vitamins and minerals in durian offer nourishment to our hair, and strengthen them.

Antioxidants like vitamin c and other relevant substances safeguard the hair and scalp from free extreme damage, and minimize signs of premature greying of hair.

Durian make our hair strong and lustrous, and lower threat of hair problems.

Treats scalp acne

Acne is a common skin issue that affect millions and are mainly triggered by the build-up of toxins, toxins and other impurities within the skin pores.

It can also happen at the scalp level and is called scalp acne.

Durian assists in dealing with skin issues like acne and scalp acne as it consists of cleansing compounds like dietary fibers and vitamin c.

These substances get rid of contaminants, pollutants, and other impurities from our system.

When there are fewer toxic substances, they are less most likely to accumulate in skin pores and lower danger of skin problems such as acne and scalp acne.

Dietary fiber manages the secretion of excess oil from the skin pores, and prevents the scalp acne from intensifying.

Lowering dandruff risk

Durian improve our scalp health and reduce risk of scalp issues such as dandruff.

It supplies nutrition to our hair and scalp, and keep them healthy.

The anti-microbial properties of durian safeguard the scalp from fungal infections, and lower risk of scalp concerns.

Durian minimize scalp dryness, a typical cause of dandruff. [9]

Durian ice cream dessert


  • 4 to 6 sections fresh, frozen, or canned durian, more as needed
  • 2 big egg yolks
  • 1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract
  • 3 tablespoons granulated sugar, or to taste
  • 1 cup entire milk
  • 1 cup light cream

Steps to make it

  1. Collect the active ingredients.
  2. Get rid of the seeds from the durian and scoop out the flesh into an electric mixer. On low to medium speed, blend the flesh into a paste.
  3. Press the paste through a fine screen. You must have 4 ounces of durian paste at this moment. (if not, use more durian.) Chill the durian paste till prepared to utilize.
  4. In a medium bowl, blend the egg yolks with the vanilla essence and sugar.
  5. Bring the milk and cream to a near boil over medium heat and after that minimize the heat to low. Gather the egg mix, stirring continuously to thicken. Take care not to let the mix boil, or the milk will curdle. (if you see bubbles forming at the edge of the pan, take it off the stove).
  6. As soon as a thick consistency, remove from the heat and permit the custard to cool. Chill the custard in the freezer for 30 to 45 minutes, till it is just starting to harden.
  7. Gradually stir in the durian paste, 1 tablespoon at a time, till completely integrated.
  8. Either continue freezing, stirring several times throughout, or end up the ice cream in an ice cream maker. [10]

Adverse effects of consuming durian fruit in excess

Excessive dietary fiber is bad for stomach

Regular and moderate usage of durian fruit is very beneficial for our stomach and enhances our digestive health. This advantage of durian is mostly due to the existence of dietary fibers in them. The dietary fibers present in the durian function as a natural laxative which implies it enhances our bowel movement, and make sure smooth elimination of stool from our system.

This eliminates constipation and likewise provides remedy for other intestinal issues such as stomach pain, irritable bowel syndrome, gas and bloating, etc.even though dietary fibers are good for our stomach, it is a good idea to be on the safe side and take in the fruit in small amounts.

A lot of anti-oxidants are bad

Durian is an excellent source of many antioxidants such as vitamin c, vitamin a and other antioxidantal substances like phytonutrients, polyphenols, and flavonoids, etc.

These anti-oxidants and the pertinent substances present in the durian fight with the totally free radicals in our body, support them and avoids them from causing oxidative damage to our cells and tissues. This decreases the risk of numerous cancers.

Increases the danger of hypoglycemia

Eating durian fruit on a routine and moderate basis is very beneficial for individuals with diabetes and for those who are at the risk of developing diabetes. This advantage of durian fruit is generally because of its low glycemic index. Glycemic index is a scale from 0 to 100 that identifies the rate at which a specific food item will launch sugar into the blood stream.

Being a low glycemic index fruit means durian releases sugar into the bloodstream at a slow rate and avoids a sudden spike in the blood sugar level and therefore assists in handling diabetes. Additionaly, the dietary fibers present in the durian reduce the rate at which sugar gets absorbed by the blood stream and hence assists in keeping blood sugar level under control.

May trigger allergic reactions

Durian fruit is an exceptional source of lots of nutrients like vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants, phytonutrients, polyphenols, and dietary fibers, and so on. Existence of these substances makes durian extremely helpful for us as they provide a variety of health advantages and as well as beauty advantages for our skin and hair.

However, not everyone can take pleasure in these benefits. It has actually been found that taking in durians might develop allergies in some individuals and they must prevent the fruit. Some typical allergic symptoms that may develop are hives, nasal blockage, runny nose, throat pain, diarrhea, and throwing up.

Eating too many durians during pregnancy

Pregnancy is an essential stage in the life of a woman. At this phase, it is necessary for her to make certain that she is having a balanced diet plan loaded with vital nutrients like minerals and vitamins, etc. This is since what a mom eats not just identifies her health however also the health and wellness of the fetus developing in her womb.

Durian is an outstanding fruit that offers many nutrients like minerals and vitamins and in addition to other substances such as antioxidants, phytonutrients, polyphenols, and dietary fibers, and so on. That assists in maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The antioxidants such as vitamin c and other relevant compounds like phytonutrients and polyphenols and so on. Protects the uterus and the fetus developing in it from the oxidative damage caused by the complimentary radicals in our body. [11]

Dosage and forms

Please be reminded that the dosages and types below are not implied to replace the advice given by your doctor:.

Durian has no medically-accepted dose, so it’s best to consume it in small amounts. You can take pleasure in the fruit fresh or frozen. [12]


Alcohol interaction rating: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health company.

The body breaks down the alcohol to eliminate it. Durian might decrease how fast the body breaks down alcohol. Drinking alcohol and taking durian may trigger unfavorable effects such as a pounding headache, vomiting, flushing, and other unpleasant reactions. Don’t drink any alcohol if you are taking durian.

Medications for diabetes (antidiabetes drugs) interaction ranking: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health service provider.

Durian may increase blood sugar level. Diabetes medications are used to lower blood glucose. Taking durian along with diabetes medications may hinder the results of diabetes medications. Display your blood sugar level carefully. The dose of your diabetes medication may need to be changed.

Some medications utilized for diabetes consist of glimepiride (amaryl), glyburide (diabeta, glynase prestab, micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (actos), rosiglitazone (avandia), chlorpropamide (diabinese), glipizide (glucotrol), tolbutamide (orinase), and others.

Before taking durian, talk with your healthcare professional if you take these or any other medications. [13]


These pesticide levels spotted in the fruits are unlikely to damage the consumers for that reason it is safe to consume watermelon and durian in thailand. While our results discovered negligible danger related to pesticide exposure from taking in these common tropical fruits, unique safety measures need to be considered to reduce total direct exposure to these damaging pesticides from various foods. [14]


  1. Https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/durian
  2. Https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1458/durian
  3. Https://durians.com/pages/the-history-of-durian
  4. Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/durian#taxonomy
  5. Https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s1674638421001076#s0070
  6. Https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/durian_ars.html#varieties
  7. Https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/durian-fruit#nutrition
  8. Https://www.netmeds.com/health-library/post/durian-fruit-health-benefits-nutrition-uses-for-skin-and-hair-recipes-side-effects
  9. Https://goodhealthall.com/durian-fruit-health-beauty-benefits/
  10. Https://www.thespruceeats.com/durian-ice-cream-694424
  11. Https://www.lifeberrys.com/healthy-living/5-side-effects-of-eating-durian-fruit-in-excess-180459.html
  12. Https://hellodoctor.com.ph/herbals-and-alternatives/herbal-medicines/benefits-durian-fruit-leaves/
  13. Https://www.rxlist.com/durian/supplements.htm#interactions
  14. Https://environhealthprevmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1007/s12199-015-0452-8
Click to rate this post!
[Total: 1 Average: 5]

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.