Gotu Kola

Centella asiatica, commonly known as gotu kola, kodavan, indian pennywort and asiatic pennywort, is an herbaceous, seasonal plant in the blooming plant family apiaceae. It is belonging to wetlands in the caucasus, tropical & & subtropical vintage to brand-new zealand and the west pacific. It is utilized as a cooking veggie and as a medicinal herb. (1 )

Summary

Gotu kola (centella asiatica) is an herb in the parsley family. It has a long history of use in the conventional chinese and ayurvedic medication systems.

Gotu kola contains particular chemicals that appear to reduce swelling and blood pressure. It likewise seems to increase collagen production, which might be helpful for injury healing.

People use gotu kola for burns and poor circulation that can result in varicose veins. It is likewise utilized for scars, stretch marks, and many other conditions, however there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses. (2 ).

History

Gotu kola (centella asiatica) has actually been used to deal with lots of conditions for thousands of years in india, china, and indonesia. It was utilized to heal injuries, improve mental clearness, and treat skin conditions such as leprosy and psoriasis.

Some individuals use it to treat respiratory infections, such as colds, and in the past it was used for that in china. It has been called “the fountain of life” because legend has it that an ancient chinese herbalist lived for more than 200 years as a result of taking gotu kola.

Historically, gotu kola has also been used to treat syphilis, hepatitis, stomach ulcers, mental tiredness, epilepsy, diarrhea, fever, and asthma. Today, in the u.s. And europe gotu kola is usually used to treat varicose veins and chronic venous deficiency, a condition where blood pools in the legs. It is likewise utilized in lotions to treat psoriasis and aid heal small wounds.

Gotu kola is not the same as kola nut (soda pop nitida). Unlike kola nut, gotu kola does not have caffeine, and is not a stimulant. (3 ).

Description

Gotu kola (centella asiatica) belongs to the apiaceae carrot household. It is likewise called pennywort, marsh cent, water pennywort, and sheep rot. The name sheep rot originates from the erroneous belief in europe that gotu kola caused foot rot in sheep. Gotu kola is typically incorrect for the kola nut plant (soda nitida). However, the two are unrelated and gotu kola, unlike the kola nut, consists of no caffeine. Gotu kola is noted in india as a very effective spiritual herb, and ayurvedic medicine describes it as brahmi because it assists acquire knowledge of the soul.

Gotu kola, a perennial, grows in india, sri lanka, madagascar, south africa, china, indonesia, australia, and the United States and Canada. It can grow like a weed, however its description depends upon its place. For example, in shallow water, the leaves float; but in dry areas, the plant establishes numerous roots and thin, small leaves. The fan-shaped leaves might be smooth or lobed. Red flowers develop into fruit with a diameter of about 0.2 in (5 mm).

Gotu kola’s main active components are triterpenoids, although the gotu kola discovered in india, sri lanka, and madagascar doesn’t have the same residential or commercial properties. Gotu kola’s triterpenes can have a concentration from 1.1-8%, with the majority of concentrations in the center range.

Gotu kola from madagascar is utilized for a lot of standardized extracts, and its 4 main triterpene residential or commercial properties are:.

  • Asiatic acid (29-30%)
  • Madecassic acid (29-30%)
  • Asiaticoside (40%)
  • Madecassoside (1-2%)

Gotu kola likewise contains the following.

  • Volatile oil of a terpene acetate (36% of all the unpredictable oil)
  • Camphor
  • Cineole
  • Glycerides of some fats
  • Plant sterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol)
  • Polyacetylene compounds
  • Flavonoids (kampferol, quercetin)
  • Myo-inositol (glycoside from the flavonoids)
  • Sugars
  • Vellarin
  • Amino acids
  • Resins (4 )

Clinical studies

Most of the clinical research studies on asian ca have been realized with alcoholic or aqueous extracts. The teca extracts (titrated extracts of asian ca and ttfca (triterpenic overall portion of asian ca) are mixes of asiatic acid (30%), madecasic acids (30%) and asiaticoside (40%). The ttf extract (triterpenic overall portion) includes asian ca and madecasic acids (60%) in a relation not clearly specified yet, in combination with asiatichoside (40%). Both in vivo scientific studies and human monolayer cell culture experiments have concluded that asiatic acid affects collagen synthesis. The selective action of the local application of triterpenoid portion of cae for wound recovery and highlighted the role of asiaticoside in the increased levels of antioxidants (enzymatic and nonenzymatic), which were also implied for the accelerated wound healing. It is now known that angiogenesis plays an important function in wound healing given that the recently formed blood vessels assist the hypoxic injuries to achieve normoxic conditions. Asiaticoside prompted angiogenesis in both in vivo and in vitro designs. In cases of vascular injury, apoplexy, acute myocardial infarction, and other peripheral vascular diseases, a higher number of distributing endothelial cells was discovered. For instance, in one research study, patients with post phlebetic syndrome (pps) showed a greater number of circulating endothelial cells compared to the typical subjects. Throughout a three-week treatment with ca triterpenic portion (catf), pps clients who received 90 mg catf daily in 3 divided does revealed an analytical significant decrease in flowing endothelial cells, thereby suggesting the efficiency of ca in securing the integrity of vascular intima. The lower number of circulating endothelial cells was credited to the protective result of catf on vascular intima integrity. The extract of ca was evaluated on 94 patients struggling with venous deficiency of the lower limbs. The patients were divided into 3 groups, each treated with teca (120 mg/day, 60 mg/day or placebo) for 2 months. A statistical considerable distinction in favour of teca groups was observed in the parameters checked for lower limbs and edema; likewise the general assessment was shown positive for the teca treated groups compared to the placebo. Catf proved to be effective on microcirculation and capillary permeability. Fifty-two patients with venous hypertension (pressure greater than 42 mmhg) were divided into 3 groups, each treated with 60 mg/day, 30 mg/day, or placebo. The extra 10 control subjects were treated with 60 mg/day. After 4 weeks of treatment substantial improvements were observed in a concentration-dependent way in the parameters tested, such as filtration rate, ankle edema, and ankle circumference. No considerable modifications were observed in placebo and control topics treated with catf. In another double-blind scientific trial involving 87 patients with chronic venous hypertensive microangiopathy, 2 dosage types of catf (30 mg/day and 60 mg/day) were looked for 60 days and no undesirable effects were observed. The outcomes likewise verified the effectiveness of catf in a dose-dependent manner. The impacts of the catf on enzymes associated with mucopolysaccharide metabolic process supported the hypothesis that the extract acts upon standard metabolic process in the connective tissues of the vascular wall. The levels of basal serum uronic acid and enzymes associated with mucopolysaccharide metabolism (beta-glucuronidase, beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase, and arylsulfatase) rose in patients with varicose veins, suggesting an increased muco-polysaccharide turnover. After treatment (60 mg/day for three months) the above enzyme levels fell progressively.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out to examine the results of an oral standardized ca product in 2 doses (30 mg bid and 60 mg quote) in 87 patients with persistent venous hypertensive microangiopathy. Microcirculatory specifications were revealed to be enhanced as compared to placebo in dosage dependent manner, with the higher dose enhancing symptoms more considerably. Another study reported the helpful results of an oral standardized ca product (60 mg three times a day over a 2month duration) in vascular permeability and microcirculation as examined by laser doppler flowmetry. The results showed a combined improvement of the microcirculation and capillary permeability in all clients (10 normal topics, 22 clients with moderate, superficial venous hypertension, and 12 patients with postphlebitic limbs and serious venous high blood pressure). Another research study in clients with severe venous high blood pressure due to deep venous disease reported that a standardized ca draw out was acutely reliable in minimizing capillary filtration and edema in individuals with venous hypertensive microangiopath. Ca preparations were found helpful in reducing the stretch marks (striae gravidarum) that lots of females establish during pregnancy. A placebo-controlled study of 100 pregnant ladies compared application of a cream consisting of a cae, vitamin e (alpha tocopherol), and collagen-elastin hydrolysates to placebo. Application of the compounded cream was connected with fewer women developing stretch marks than in placebo. Application of topical ca preparations were shown to be advantageous in reducing the scarring seen during wound healing, seeming associated with the stimulation of maturation of the scar by the production of type i collagen and the resulting decrease in the inflammatory reaction and myofibroblast production. In a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, half-side contrast research study, undertaken to figure out if it could also enhance mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis in adults, eighty-eight participants were randomly applied the treatment ointment and the placebo control to either the left or best side of the body for 4 weeks (2 applications daily) after which erythema, edema, exuding, and excoriation were examined. No substantial enhancements were found in the treatment group as compared to the control group; however, further analysis of patients living in chillier environments showed a considerable enhancement in the dealt with areas. Because the ointment consisted of the combination of herbs, it was recommended that further studies utilizing each specific herb and studies using a parallel group style were needed to be carried out.

In one recent randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind research study, 28 participants (< <61 years of age) received either ca extracts (250, 500, or 750 mg daily) or placebo in order to figure out the result of ca on cognitive function and state of mind. In the study, after 2 months, cognitive function (as examined by event-related potential and the electronic evaluation battery test) and state of mind (using bond-lader visual analogue) was determined. The greatest improvements in state of mind and cognitive function were discovered in those receiving the 750 mg dosage of ca draw out. A double-blind, placebo-controlled research study investigated the anxiolytic activity of ca in human topics. The authors concluded that the findings recommended ca’s anxiolytic activity in people. Extremely recently, a study was conducted in sixty senior subjects in age 65 and above, utilizing diagnostic tools like mini frame of mind examination scoring (mmse scoring), wherein activities of everyday living and yesavage geriatric depression scale were assessed. The mean mmse scoring showed significant improvement after administration of ca for 6 months in elderly with mild cognitive problems (mci) at dose of 500 mg twice a day (1000 mg daily). A beneficial improvement is observed in depression and other age associated conditions like hypertension, peripheral neuritis, sleeping disorders, anorexia nervosa, constipation indicative of multiple beneficial clinical results of ca particularly in the age-related cognitive decrease in elderly. (5 ).

Advantages of gotu kola

It might help enhance cognitive function

A small 2016 research study compared the impacts of gotu kola extract and folic acid in boosting cognitive function after a stroke. This small research study evaluated the influence on three groups of individuals– one taking 1,000 milligrams (mg) of gotu kola per day, one taking 750 mg of gotu kola each day, and one taking 3 mg of folic acid per day.

Although gotu kola and folic acid were similarly helpful in improving general cognition, gotu kola was more effective in improving memory domain.

A separate research study took a look at the cognitive enhancing results of gotu kola water extract on mice. Although both young and old mice showed improvements in learning and memory utilizing the morris water maze, the result was greater in the older mice.

How to utilize: take 750 to 1,000 mg of gotu kola each day for as much as 2 week at a time.

It might assist treat alzheimer’s disease

Gotu kola has the capability to enhance memory and nerve function, which provides it possible in dealing with alzheimer’s illness. In fact, one 2012 research study on mice discovered that gotu kola extract had a favorable effect on behavioral problems in mice with alzheimer’s disease.

The extract was likewise shown, in laboratory and animal research studies, to have a modest result on protecting brain cells from toxicity. This might likewise safeguard the cells from forming the plaque associated with alzheimer’s.

Still, additional research study is required to identify exactly how gotu kola could be utilized to deal with alzheimer’s. If you have an interest in adding this to your treatment strategy, talk with your medical professional before usage.

How to utilize: take 30 to 60 drops of liquid gotu kola extract 3 times daily. Does may vary between makers, so always thoroughly follow the instructions on the bottle.

It may help in reducing stress and anxiety and stress

Scientists in an animal research study from 2016 discovered that gotu kola had an anti-anxiety result on male mice that were sleep denied for 72 hours. Sleep deprivation can cause anxiety, oxidative damage, and neuro swelling.

Mice that were given gotu kola for five successive days before undergoing sleep deprivation experienced significantly less anxiety-like habits. They also experienced improved locomotor activity and less oxidative damage.

A 2013 review of anti-anxiety natural medicines likewise concluded that gotu kola has an acute anti-anxiety effect. Nevertheless, more research is needed to verify these findings.

How to use: take 500 mg of gotu kola extract twice a day for up to 2 week at a time. You can take up to 2,000 mg daily in cases of extreme stress and anxiety.

It may serve as an antidepressant

Gotu kola’s favorable effect on brain function might likewise make it an efficient antidepressant.

A review from 2016 supports these findings, in part due to a research study on 33 individuals with generalized stress and anxiety condition. The participants were asked to take gotu kola in place of their antidepressant medication for 60 days. They self-reported reduced stress, anxiety, and anxiety.

Another study talked about in the review examined the result of gotu kola on rats caused with persistent anxiety. The organic solution had a favorable result on specific components of behavioral anxiety, including body weight, body temperature level, and heart rate.

How to utilize: take 500 mg of gotu kola twice a day for approximately 2 week at a time. You can take up to 2,000 mg daily during times of intensified depression.

It may improve flow and lower swelling

Research study from 2001 discovered that gotu kola can decrease problems with fluid retention, ankle swelling, and blood circulation connected to taking flights that last longer than three hours.

Participants who experienced mild-to-moderate superficial venous illness with varicose veins were asked to take gotu kola for 2 days prior to their flight, the day of their flight, and the day after their flight.

Scientists found that participants who took the supplement experienced considerably less fluid retention and ankle swelling than those who didn’t.

Older research study has actually also shown that gotu kola can be useful in treating varicose veins. This might be due to the fact that gotu kola has a favorable metabolic impact on the connective tissue of the vascular wall.

How to use: take 60 to 100 mg of gotu kola extract 3 times daily for a week, before and after any flights. You can likewise massage the affected location with a topical cream containing 1 percent gotu kola extract.

How to do a skin patch test: it is necessary to do a patch test before using any topical medication. To do this, rub a dime-sized quantity on to the within your lower arm. If you do not experience any irritation or inflammation within 24 hr, it must be safe to use in other places.

It might help ease insomnia

Offered its perceived capability to treat anxiety, tension, and depression, gotu kola may also be used to deal with the insomnia that in some cases accompanies these conditions. Some consider this natural remedy to be a safe alternative to prescription medications used to deal with insomnia and other sleep conditions.

Although older research does suggest that gotu kola can help treat sleep conditions, additional studies are required to verify these findings.

How to utilize: take 300 to 680 mg of gotu kola draw out 3 times daily for as much as 2 week at a time.

It might help reduce appearance of stretch marks

According to a 2013 evaluation, gotu kola can reduce the look of stretch marks. It’s believed that the terpenoids discovered in gotu kola increase collagen production in the body. This might assist avoid brand-new stretch marks from forming, as well as help heal any existing marks.

How to utilize: use a topical cream consisting of 1 percent gotu kola extract to the afflicted location several times each day.

How to do a skin patch test: it’s important to do a patch test before using any topical medication. To do this, rub a dime-sized amount on to the inside of your forearm. If you don’t experience any inflammation or inflammation within 24 hr, it ought to be safe to use somewhere else.

It may promote wound healing and reduce scarring

Scientists in a 2015 study on rats discovered that injury dressing containing gotu kola had recovery effects on several types of injuries. This includes clean cuts by sharp things, irregular tears brought on by blunt-force trauma, and infected tissue.

Although promising, additional research study is required to validate these findings.

How to use: apply an ointment containing 1 percent gotu kola extract to the affected area numerous times daily. If your injury is deep or otherwise serious, see your doctor before usage.

How to do a skin patch test: it is very important to do a patch test prior to using any topical medication. To do this, rub a dime-sized quantity on to the within your lower arm. If you do not experience any inflammation or inflammation within 24 hr, it needs to be safe to utilize somewhere else.

It might assist ease joint pain

The anti-inflammatory residential or commercial properties of gotu kola might work in treating arthritis.

In fact, one 2014 study on collagen-induced arthritis in rats discovered that oral administration of gotu kola minimized joint swelling, cartilage disintegration, and bone disintegration. Its antioxidant effect likewise had a favorable effect on the body immune system.

How to use: take 300 to 680 mg of gotu kola draw out 3 times daily for approximately 14 days at a time.

It may have a detox effect

More recent research is having a look at gotu kola’s result on liver and kidney toxicity.

According to one 2017 animal study, gotu kola can be used to suppress the poisonous side effects of the antibiotic isoniazid. Isoniazid is used to deal with and avoid tuberculosis.

Rats were provided 100 mg of gotu kola for 1 month prior to they were offered the antibiotic. These rats experienced less toxicity in general. Rats that did experience toxicity in the liver and kidneys resumed to near-normal levels after being offered gotu kola.

More research is required to expand upon these findings.

How to use: take 30 to 60 drops of liquid gotu kola extract 3 times each day for as much as 2 week at a time. Dosages might vary between makers, so always thoroughly follow the directions on the bottle. (6 ).

Nutritional facts

In southeast asia, gotu kola is used as much for food as for medical purposes. A member of the parsley family, gotu kola is an excellent source of important minerals and vitamins needed to preserve optimal health.

According to a review in the global food research study journal, 100 grams of fresh gotu kola delivers the following nutrients and meets the following advised dietary consumption (rdi) requires:.

  • Calcium: 171 milligrams (17% of the rdi)
  • Iron: 5.6 milligrams (31% of the rdi)
  • Potassium: 391 milligrams (11% of the rdi)
  • Vitamin a: 442 micrograms (49% of the rdi)
  • Vitamin c: 48.5 milligrams (81% of the rdi)
  • Vitamin b2: 0.19 milligrams (9% of the rdi)

gotu kola is also an excellent source of dietary fiber, providing 8 percent of the rdi for ladies and 5 percent of the rdi for males. (7 ).

Advantages of gotu kola in your skincare products

Gotu kola is abundant with anti-oxidants. It augments the skin’s capability to fend off environmental stressors that can damage your skin, and dispels impurities that can cause signs of early aging like dark spots, wrinkles, and dull skin.

It has cleaning properties. It rids your face of yuck and filth like dirt, germs, and pore-clogging oil (good idea it’s in our gentle so clean! Cleanser).

It can lighten up, tighten up, and smooth skin. Because of this it can considerably reduce the appearance of scarring, great lines, and wrinkles. It’s also amazing for your eye location, which is why we’ve included it in our eyes infant eye cream, as it can lessen the appearance of dark circles and puffiness. Overall, it will renew and rejuvenate your skin assisting you feel fresh faced and fantastic!

It’s an extremely soother. Filled with soothing homes, gotu kola decreases short-lived redness and alleviates pain associated with skin sensitivity. This makes it a great active ingredient to search for if you have delicate skin.

It’s a majorly effective hydration station. Gotu kola aids the skin in keeping wetness and can assist attain that vibrant, dewy glow that just comes from appropriate quantities of water. This is what makes it an essential component in our crème de la cream moisturizer. Hydrated skin is the ultimate way to keep typical signs of aging at bay. (8 ).

Negative effects of gotu kola

Some reported negative effects of gotu kola consist of:

  • Drowsiness
  • Gastrointestinal discomfort
  • Skin problems
  • Lightheadedness
  • Nausea
  • Headaches

Although there is limited appropriate information, it is possible that gotu kola can communicate with prescription or over-the-counter medications.

It is important to consult a physician prior to using gotu kola. Make sure that the doctor understands about all ongoing medications and treatments. (9 )

Gotu kola tea recipe and benefit

Gotu kola (indian pennywort or mandukparni, centella asiatica, hydrcotyle asiatica) is a medical herb, which is used in ayurveda from centuries to treat brain function associated problems such as bad memory, low mental abilities, stress and anxiety, speech problems and sleeplessness. Gotu kola tea, which is prepared from the plant of centella asiatica is easy to make and offers numerous health benefits. This tea is especially helpful in causing sound sleep.

For preparing this tea, one teaspoon of carefully shredded dried/fresh gotu kola leaves are taken in a cup of warm water. The cup is covered with lid and the leaves are soaked for 10-15 minutes. After fifteen minutes tea is ready to drink. For stronger taste, you can steep leaves for more time. You can prepare and drink this tea 3-4 times a day.

Gotu kola tea provides many health advantages. It is brain tonic, which minimizes stress, anxiety, growths, and cures insomnia/sleeplessness and anxiety. It likewise improves brainpowers, memory, intelligence and gets rid of psychological tiredness. Gotu kola tea removes toxic substances from the liver and blood, improves energy levels and strengthens the kidneys. According to ayurveda, it balances aggravated vata and pitta in the body. (10 ).

Dosing

The advised daily dosage of titrated extracts of c. Asiatica standardized for asiaticoside, asiatic acid, and madecassic acid is 60 to 120 mg. (11 ).

Interaction

Taking gotu kola with any medicines that make you drowsy can intensify this result. Ask your doctor prior to taking gotu kola with medication for stress and anxiety, depression, or seizures.

Gotu kola can harm your liver. This result is increased when you also use other medications damaging to the liver. Do not take gotu kola without medical suggestions if you are utilizing any of the following medications:.

  • Acetaminophen (tylenol);
  • Leflunomide, teriflunomide;
  • Methotrexate;
  • An antibiotic, antifungal medication, sulfa drug, or tuberculosis medicine;
  • Contraceptive pill or hormone replacement therapy;
  • Heart or high blood pressure medication;
  • Cholesterol-lowering medications– crestor, lipitor, pravachol, simcor, vytorin, zocor, and others;
  • Gout or arthritis medications (including gold injections);
  • Hiv/aids medications;
  • Medicines to treat mental disorder;
  • An nsaid (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug)- ibuprofen (advil, motrin), naproxen (aleve), celecoxib (celebrex), diclofenac, indomethacin, meloxicam, others;
  • Seizure medication– carbamazepine, phenytoin, and others; or
  • Steroids (prednisone and others).

This list is not complete. Other drugs might engage with gotu kola, including prescription and over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and organic items. Not all possible interactions are listed in this product guide. (12 ).

Cautions

This medication contains gotu kola. Do not utilize brahmabuti, centella asiatica, hydrocotyle, indian pennywort, indian water navelwort, madescassol, marsh penny, talepetrako, thick-leaved pennywort, or white rot if you dislike gotu kola or any ingredients contained in this drug.

Keep out of reach of kids. In case of overdose, get medical help or contact a toxin nerve center immediately. (13 ).

Conclusions

Asiatica is an herb utilized in conventional chinese medicine. Its main effective components are asiaticoside, asiatic acid, madecassoside, and madecassic acid. As discussed earlier, c. Asiatica and its triterpenoids have a wide variety of medical values. In vivo and in vitro research studies revealed that c. Asiatica and its triterpenoids had therapeutic and eliminating results on multi-system diseases. The c. Asiatica extract effectively eases sleep deprivation, ad, type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2dm), hyperlipidemia, gestational diabetes, baldness, atopic dermatitis, injury, drug-induced liver toxicity, liver injury, gastric mucosal injury, gastric ulcers, breast cancer, leukemia, oral submucous fibrosis, migraine, etc. Asiatic acid efficiently alleviates cognitive impairment, alzheimer’s disease, parkinson’s disease, weight problems, renovascular high blood pressure, transverse aortic constraint, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (mi/r) injury, atherosclerosis, liver fibrosis, intense pancreatitis, colon carcinogenesis, hepatocellular carcinoma, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, pelvic inflammatory, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, sepsis, periodontitis, and so forth. The preclinical research studies on asiaticoside found that it has restorative potential for the list below illness: hemiparkinsonism, alzheimer’s disease, cerebral anemia, skin wound, pulmonary hypertension, atherogenesis, ali, osteolytic bone illness, etc. Pharmacological research studies found that madecassoside had potential therapeutic result versus osteoporosis, acne, vitiligo, ra, and so forth. Madecassic acid had a positive therapeutic effect on ischemic retinopathies. The preclinical research study on centella asiatica primarily concentrated on the extract of c. Asiatica and asiatic acid. For diseases, neurological and skin diseases are mainly examined. Nevertheless, the impact on other illness likewise requires more in-depth expedition.

The incident of inflammatory response, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction is carefully related to various diseases. C. Asiatica and its triterpenoids can be utilized in lots of medical scenarios since they have anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic impacts, ease oxidant stress, and enhance mitochondrial function. Therefore even more, c. Asiatica may also be applied to diseases not pointed out in this study via the same pathological system, and this hypothesis requires extensive investigation for confirmation. (14 ).

Referrals

  1. Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/centella_asiatica
  2. Https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-753/gotu-kola
  3. Https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/herb/gotu-kola
  4. Https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gotu-kola
  5. Https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3116297/
  6. Https://www.healthline.com/health/gotu-kola-benefits#_noheaderprefixedcontent
  7. Https://www.verywellhealth.com/the-benefits-of-gotu-kola-89566
  8. Https://fleurandbee.com/blogs/news/gotu-kola-for-skin
  9. Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/gotu-kola-benefits#side-effects
  10. Https://www.bimbima.com/recipes/gotu-kola-tea-recipe-and-benefits/2292/
  11. Https://www.drugs.com/npp/gotu-kola.html
  12. Https://www.emedicinehealth.com/drug-gotu_kola/article_em.htm#drugs
  13. Https://www.rxlist.com/consumer_gotu_kola/drugs-condition.htm
  14. Https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2020.568032/full#h4
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